Wednesday, March 14, 2012

In 1763 the first Lack Township Assessment was taken.  You will notice that there are three Irwin’s listed on this tax record.  William Irwin is taxed for 50 acres for 2 shillings at Elder Gilliford’s in what later would be Milford Township in 1886 when this record was published. 

James Irwin is taxed for 150 acres for 3 shillings at David Allen’s in what later would be Beale Township in 1886. 

John Irwin is taxed 15 acres and 3 unknown (horse, cow, sheep) for 10 shilling at Abraham G. Partner’s in what later would be Beale Township in 1886.

LACK TOWNSHIP ASSESSMENT OF 1767 included William and James Irwin but not John Irwin.

In 1770, Christly Erwin (Christopher Irwin), is added to the Lack Township Assessment.

We must bear in mind that prior to 1769 Lack Township covers half of the county west of the river.

Interesting to find an old Presbyterian Church in Lack township, at what is now known as the McWilliams grave-yard, about three miles above Waterford. It was a small log house, and once supplied the place of the Upper and Middle Tuscarora Presbyterian Churches. The grave-yard is still used for burials and is one of the oldest in the county. The history of this church is lost, but it was probably used until the churches were built at Waterloo and McCulloch's Mills, which was about 1802.

We know that William Irwin was active member of the Presbyterian Church and most likely attended this church. Maybe we can find Irwin family members buried at McWilliams Graveyard. 

It appears from reading Milford Township records that the residence of Lack Township felt that they lived over 30 miles from all Township Offices and requested a division of their township from Tuskarora Mountain, by James Gray's, to William Scot's, at the foot of the Shade Mountain on 20 October 1768.

You will notice that William Irwin signs this petition.  It is our believe that he is the father of James Irwin born 16 October 1758.  This would make James 10 years old when this petition was signed. So, it appears that James Irwin may have been born in Lack Township and then at the age of 10 his township was divided and he then resident in Milford Township.  This would explain why he is enlisted in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Militia in Milford Township in 1777, 1778 and 1780. 

After the Lack Township was divided and Milford Township was established on November 7, 1768,  William Irwin had one hundred and forty-two acres surveyed on February 1, 1767, and later added sixty-one acres. His land extended across the creek and took in the lands at David Partner's blacksmith-shop.

In April 17, 1820 residence of Milford and Turbett Township requested a new township be formed by nothing resulted in their efforts.  Then on February 8, 1843 Milford Township was divided and Beale Township was formed. 

In the history of Beale Township we find that William Irwin’s land was later made part of Beal Township.  He is referred to as active man in the Presbyterian Church, who long owned this place.

We also find other Irwin’s who lived in Milford Township like John Irwin, on February 4, 1755, took out a warrant for two hundred acres to be located on Tuscarora Creek, but before he got it surveyed the tract was surveyed to others. On June 12, 1766, he had resurveyed to him three hundred and fifty acres, now a fine piece of land and in the heart of the valley. After his death it was divided, December 23, 1794, between James, Jr. and Robert Irwin, his sons. This tract now comprises the farms of E. Southard Parker, Abraham G. Partner and Abraham Brubaker.

Christopher Irwin is stated to have had an improvement north of John Irwin, above the ridge, in 1786, but he is on the tax-list already in 1773. He warranted three hundred and thirty acres May 19, 1795. The Irwins are said to have settled above the ridge, because the valley was too swampy. There is a great deal of misapprehension among the people now as to the facts in such cases. Men then knew the difference between poor and good land as well as people do now. The dates in the case of the Irwins show that they knew where to locate their warrants. There were men who located their surveys on the good land, but erected cabins on adjoining uplands, which they could thus hold by right of improvement, in addition to their surveys, and they did this, especially for a few years, where the timber was small and thin and easily removed, and where they could with little labor raise something to get a start and give themselves time to clear the more fertile and more heavily-timbered lands. The first settlers dug no wells, and always located where there was good water, which sometimes was not convenient to the main body of their lands.

James Irwin, Sr., bought, in 1762, the right of John Irwin, who held in the right of John Woods, and warranted two hundred and seventy-four acres February 25, 1773. He also bought the tract warranted by John Woods, two hundred and twenty acres, November 6, 1772, thus making four hundred and ninety-four acres. He also took up in his own right one hundred and fifty-two acres more, March 26, 1788, situated between his other land and the mountain.

About 1795 there was a great emigration to the vicinity of Cincinnati and other points along the Ohio River, some going into Kentucky. More followed at intervals, and took from Tuscarora Valley many of its most active young men. In later years the tide was farther north into Ohio. In 1836 to 1840 there was a great moving west into Ohio and beyond. Descendants of those who once lived in Tuscarora may be found in great numhers in Wayne County, about Wooster, Bucyrus and New Lancaster. In places, especially in Beale township, the exodus of 1836 took nearly one-fourth of the inhabitants.

We can see that in 1795 James Irwin did migrate to Warren County, Ohio and then later to Butler County, Ohio. 

October 1768

Gregorian S M Tu W Th F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Lack Township

History of that part of the Susquehanna and Juniata valleys, embraced in the counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
Edited by F. Ellis and A. N. Hungerford.
Published in Philadelphia by Everts, Peck & Richards, 1886
Pages 727-733

A. L. Guss

The Juniata Valley region was purchased from the Indians July 6, 1754. Settlers had been intruding on this land before this date, and were driven away, but they returned. At length, in 1750, the justices of Cumberland County, with the undersheriff passed through Sherman's, Path and Tuscarora Valleys and the Cove in Fulton County and dispossessed the intruders. It was at last determined to purchase this region as the only sure method of averting serious trouble. This was effected on Albany, at the date above given. A great many men in the Cumberland Valley and farther eastward were ready, at the signal, to locate upon the more desirable places. The Land-Office for the sale of warrants did not open until February 3, 1755; but the number of settlers who had already "squatted" in the new purchase may be inferred by the fact that in three months after the purchase, at the request of said inhabitants, four townships were formed out of the new territory, of which the following is an exact copy of the official record:

"The Court's erection and nomination of new Townships tother side the N Mountain.
"At a meeting of the majestrates in conjunction with the Commissioners & Assessors of Cumberland County at Carlyle the 23d day of October, 1754, it was concluded that WHEREAS there has been an addition made to the County aforesaid by a late purchase from the Indians: to erect the habitable parts added to the said County into separate Townships and to appoint Constables in the same for the better regulation thereof. 
"Therefore, at the request of the Inhabitants, we do erect the settlements called the Great Cove, the Little Cove & Cannaloes into one township, and nominate the same the Township of Ear and we appoint John McMeans to act as Constable therein for the remaining part of this current year. 
"And farther, we erect the settlements called the Path Valley into a separate Township and nominate the same the Township of Fanet, and we appoint John Bard to act as Constable therein for the remaining part of the current year - and we do further erect the settlement called Tuskerora Valey into a sepparate Township and nominate the same the Township of Lac, and we appoint John Johnston to act therein as Constable for the remaining part of the current year - and we do further erect the settlements called Sherman's Valley and Bufolo's creek into a separate Township and nominate the same the Township of Tyrone, and we appoint John Scott X. Linton to act as Constable therein for the remaining part of the current year. 
"In testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our hands the day & year first written. 
"Sam'l Smith. 
"Will. Maxwell. 
"John Finly." 

By the above, Tyrone township included all the present Perry County; Fannet embraced Path Valley, in Franklin County; "Ear" was named after Ayr, in Scotland, and comprehended the present Warren township in Franklin County, all of Fulton County, and with general indefinite limits westward, embracing Bedford County; Lac comprehended all the Tuscarora Valley and included part of Huntingdon County. It will be observed there are no lines mentioned. It is only stated that certain settlements shall constitute the townships named. 

On the 9th of July, 1755, Braddock was defeated, and the French and Indian War ensued, and no records are found relating to the new townships. In 1761 there are constables' returns, of "Aire" by William Lynn, and of Fannet by James Elder. Lack is named in the list of townships, but the space for the constable's name is left blank, which shows that few or no people had returned to that settlement. 

On March 25, 1762, the court made the following appointments: Fannet, Francis McConnell constable; "Aair,""William Haynes constable; Lack, Ralph Starret constable, William Andersona and John McMehan supervisors; Fermanagh, William White constable. Anderson and White were killed by the Indians the next year, on the 10th of July. 

On March 25, 1763, the court made the following appointments: Lack, John McClelland constable, Robert Campbell and Robert Houston supervisors, William Graham and John Erwin overseers, James Williams collector. 

All other persons appointed for Lack resided in what afterwards became Milford township. In 1768 Lack was divided, and the lower half was called Milford. In 1825 Lack was again divided, and the lower half called Tuscarora. It is bounded northward by the Black Log Mountain, southward by the Tuscarora Mountain, and eastward by Tuscarora, westward by Tell township, in Huntingdon County. Shade Mountain separates Black Log Valley, drained by Black Log Creek into the Aughwick, from the rest of the township. The rest of the township is drained by the Tuscarora Creek and its inflowing streams, the principal ones being Willow Run (formerly Little Tuscarora), Wood's Run and George's Creek. The township is traversed by ridges running parallel to the mountains. The Shade Valley side and the creek side are more thickly peopled than the intervening ridges. 

The first assessment was taken in 1763 by William Anderson, who was killed by the Indians in that year. In the following lists the reader must bear in mind that prior to 1769 Lack covers the half of the county west of the river. These lists must be taken as part of the history of all the townships formed out of Lack. 

LACK TOWNSHIP ASSESSMENT OF 1763 - Abbreviations. - In the following list, taken from the records at Carlisle, "a" stands for acres, "w" for warranted, "p" for patented, "ac" for acres cleared, "h" for horses, "c" for cows, "s" for sheep, "uns" for unseated. The townships in which the lands of the person taxed are now situated are marked "L" for Lack, "M" for Milford, "T" for Tuscarora, "Tt" for Turbett, "B" for Beale, "SH" for Spruce Hill. The tax in the 1763 list is in pounds and shillings, the latter denoted by "sh." 

Arbuckle, William, 100aw, 150a, 4sh. (At Thomas Arbuckle's in T.) 
Armstrong, William, Captain, 200aw, 7sh. (At heirs of Jacob Koons in Tt.) 
Armstrong, James, 50a, 1sh. (At Groninger's in M.) 
Armstrong, John, 100aw, 2sh. (In the Half Moon opposite Spruce Hill.) 
Anderson, William, 100a, uns, 5sh. (At John T. Nourse's in SH) 
Bales, John, free, 200aw. (Beale-at Enoch Beales in SH) 
Bretherton, William, 1sh. 
Bell, David, 150aw, 1, 10sh. (At John Robinson's heirs in M.) 
Bush, Samuel, 100a, uns. 1 sh. 
Bready, John, 100a, uns, 1 sh. 
Chambers, Thomas, 200a, 6sh. (Killed by Indians at Great Island in 1763.) 
Calhoon, James, free, 150aw. (At Jacob Aughey's in M.) 
Campbell, Robert, 400aw, 200a, 18sh. (At the mouth of Licking Creek in M.) 
Campbell, Dougal, 100a, 1sh. (Adjoining the Bealetown tract in T.) 
Cunningham, William, 50a, 2sh. (At the Partner place in M.) 
Crunkelton, Robert, 200a, 3sh. (Coungleton, a squatter at Sterrett's in M.) 
Cristy, Widow, 200a, 3sh. (At William Wharton's in SH.) 
Colins, John, 100a, 2sh. (At Joseph Williams' in T.) 
Cain, Charles, 100a, 1sh. 
Deywitt, Dowell, 50a, 1sh. 
Dey, Joseph, 100a, 2sh. (Squatter at John P. Kelly's in B.) 
Deen, James, 1sh. 
Deleeth, Thomas, 100a, uns, 1sh. 
Grahams, William, 150a, 3sh. (At David Esh's in SH.) 
Glen, John, free, 100aw. (In right of George Woods-tract covers the mouth of Woods Run in L.) 
Grey, James, 100a, 3sh. (At John Bennet's in SH.) 
Grey, Widow, 100aw, uns, 1sh. (At James Okeson's in SH.) 
Green, Samuel, 50a, 1sh. (Squatter, at James P. Johnson's in Tt.) 
Hambleton, Jean, 160a, uns, 1sh. (At John Beshoar's in M.) 
Hardy, John, 100a, uns, 1sh. (This year near Hogg's in SH.) 
Hunter, Charles, 100a, 4sh. (At Judge John Koon's in Tt.) 
Huston, Robert, 200aw, 3sh. (At J. R. Jenkins' in M.) 
Hodge, Robert, 200a, 2sh. (Hogg, at John L. Patterson in SH.) 
Irwin, William, 50a, 2sh. (At Elder Gilliford's in M.) 
Irwin, James, 150a, 3sh. (At David Allen's, in B.) 
Irwin, John, 15a, 3, 10sh. (At Abraham G. Partner's in B.) 
Inis, Francis, 100, uns, 1sh. (At Robert Innis' at B.) 
Kenny, James, 400aw, uns, 4sh. (At Mrs. Stewart Turbett's in Tt.) 
Kenny, Charles, free, 200aw. (At Dr. G. M. Graham's farm in Tt.) 
Kennedy, James, free, 200aw. (At Jonathan Okeson's land in B.) 
Litle, John, 200aw, uns, 2sh. (At Matthew Clark's in L.) 
McGachy, William, 50a, L1, 10sh. (Probably in Liberty Valley, now Perry County) 
McMachan, John, 200a, 4sh. (At Samuel B. Pannebaker's in B.) 
McClellan, John, 200a, L1, 10sh. (At Patterson borough.) 
McConnell, George, 150a, 4sh. (At Rev. J. A. Ross' in L.) 
McKnight, John, Esq., 400aw, uns, 4sh. (At John Randolph's in T.) 
McKee, Thomas, 200aw, uns, 2sh. 
Morrison, John, poor. (At N. McCoy Stewart's in T.) 
Morris, William, free, 200aw. (At the first farm above J. Shower's in T.) 
Moor, Robert, free. (At David Coyle's farm in Tt.) 
Paton, John, 100a, uns, 1sh. (At the Patton farm in SH.) 
Patterson, William, 200aw, 2sh. (Opposite Mexico in Tt.) 
Patterson, James, 200aw, 2sh. (At George Boyer's et. al. Tt.) 
Pate, Jacob, 150a, 8sh. (Pyatt-Probably on heads of Tuscarora in Huntingdon County) 
Quigley, Hugh, 100a, 3sh. (At John F. G. Long's in SH.) 
Ramsey, William, 150aw, 3sh. 
Robinson, Alexander, 100a, uns, 1sh. (This year near Hogg's in SH.) 
Robinson, Robert, 100a, uns, 1sh. (Squatter right on the Doty farm in M.) 
Robinson, Patrick, 100a, uns, 1sh. 
Raniston, William, 150aw, 3sh. (At Thomas Stewart's in SH.) 
Starrit, Ralph, 100a, 2sh. (At William Milliken's in B.) 
Swan, Widow, 200a, uns, 2sh. (At Hervey Neely's in T.) 
Shaley, Joseph, 2sh. 
Scott, James, 150a, 2sh. (At Samuel Imes', late McDonald, in B.) 
Scot, John, 150a, 1sh. (At Ralph Dobb's and Abraham Noss' in T.) 
Scott, William, 100a, uns, 1sh. (At William Hart's in T.) 
Williams, James, 100a, 3sh. (At David Imes' in B.) 
Williams, John, 150aw, 2sh. (Near Waterloo in L.) 
Williams, John, hunter, 50a, 1sh. (At Nevin Pomeroy's land in SH.) 
Wallas, John, 100a, 3sh. 
Wallas, David, 200aw, 4sh. (at "Wallacetown," Waterloo, in L.) 
Wilson, John, 50a, 2sh. (At James McKnight's heirs in M.) 
Wilson, James, 100a, uns, 1sh. 
Wilson, Thomas, 200a, uns, 2sh. (At Port Royal borough.) 
West, Francis, 150a, uns, L1, 10sh. (At J. & A. Reed's (Fort Bingham) in T.) 
West, John (crossed out). 
Young, James (crossed out) 200a. 

In 1766 the court appointed for Lack: Constable, George McConnell; Supervisors, Hugh Quigley, James Armstrong. In 1767: Constable, James Christy; Collector, Robert Campbell; for Fermanagh, James Purdy. In 1768: Constable Jacob Pyate; Supervisors, William Kirk, Robert Little; Overseers, William Bell, James Stone; Collector, William Arbuckle. The following lists for 1767 and additions for 1768 comprehend the whole west end of the county; the additions after that, running up to the Revolution, include the present Lack and Tuscarora townships. LACK TOWNSHIP ASSESSMENT OF 1767. - (Those already located in list of 1763 are marked *),-- William Arbuckle,* William Armstrong,* John Armstrong,* James Armstrong,* Thomas Armstrong, John Bayle,* Thomas Boal, Andrew Bogs, William Bell, John Blackburn, Samuel Brice, William Brice (the town of Waterloo is on this tract), Robert Campbell,* William Campbell, Dougal Campbell,* Thomas Carr, James Calhoon,* James Chambers, James Cristy, Dennis Cristy, John Collins,* John Crozier, Widow Cunningham, Joseph Days,* Abraham Dewitt, Paul Dewitt, James Gray,* William Graham,* Henry Graham, John Glenn,* John Hardy, Thomas Hardy, John Hamilton, Robert Hogg,* Clement Horrell, Charles Hunter,* Robert Hustion,* Francis Innis,* James Irwin,* William Irwin,* James Kennedy,* Charles Kenny,* James Kenny,* William Kirk, John Little,* Robert Little, John Lyon, John McClellan,* John McDowel, George McConnel,* Thomas McGuire, John McIntire, John McKnight, Esq., James McMahon, John Mateere, Robert Moore,* William Morris,* Milright's Place, William Patterson,* John Patton,* Charles Pollock, Jacob Pyatt,* Hugh Quigley,* Alexander Robinson (at the Doty farm in M.), Patrick Robinson, William Rennison,* James Scott,* Joseph Scott, William Scott,* John Scott,* John Shaw, William Speddy (at B. Lauver's place in M.), James Stone (at Harvey Wallace's in L.), John Steel, merchant (at heirs of Rev. Thomas Smith, in SH.); Abraham Stamford, grist-mill, (in charge of the Thomas Beale mill in B.); Robert Taylor (at John Robinson, Jr.'s in M.), James Williams,* John Williams,* hunter, John Williams,* William Wilson, John Wilson,* Thomas Wood, Francis West,* James Wallace. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES IN 1768. Adams, Thomas. 
Anderson, Thomas. 
Arbuckle, John. (Adjoining William Arbuckle in T.) 
Buchanan, John. (At Joseph Sheesley's in M.) 
Cochran, John. (At Irwin Stewart's, McCoysville in T.) 
Coleman, Michael. 
Delief, Thomas. 
Erwin, John. 
Finlay, Samuel. (At Harrison Reed's in B.) 
Glenn, Hugh. (At the mouth of George's Creek in L.) 
Glenn, James, free. (List of 1774 says, "adj. Trough Spring." Later near Behel's saw-mill.) 
Gammill, John. (The Peru Mills property in L.) 
Hays, Adam. (Across the creek from Waterford in T.) 
Jacobs, Joseph. (Now occupied, below Hough's in M.) 
Jeffry, Thomas. 
Kearsley, Jonathan. (At Calvin Barton's in L.) 
Kilgore, Joseph. 
Linn, James. 
Lukens, John, surveyor-general. (At the Anderson fulling-mill in T.) 
McNear, David. (At Capt. J. J. Patterson's in B.) 
McDonald, Duncan. (At Thomas Stewart's in M.) 
Magaw, David, on George's Creek. 
Morris, John. 
Porter, Stephen, attorney. (At Stephen Porter Harlan's in T.) 
Potts, John, adjoining Bigham's Gap in 1769. (At J. W. Milliken's in T.) 
Redman, James. (At the David Cunningham place in M.) 
Sando, Jacob. 
Shell, John. 
Stuart, Charles. (At Pleasant View in SH.) 
Weights, John. 
Williams, Enoch. (Married the widow of John Gray.) 

Single Freemen.-William Barnes, Samuel Henderson, Robert Thompson, John Wilcock, Robert Cochran, William Smith, Joseph Wilson. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1769.-William Beal, Wharton and Morgan Baynton, Captain Copeland, Daniel Campbell, John Cook, Rev. George Duffield, at head of Tuscarora, Ezekiel Dunning, Thomas Dobbs, David Elder, adj. head of George's Creek, James How, Henderson Harvey, Robert Livers, of Philadelphia, John Martin, Robert Porter, William Reany, Ralph Starret, John Thomas, Samuel Taylor, James Thompson, David Wilson, William Wallace. 

Single Freemen.-William Barnes, James Curran, James Glenn, William Morris, James Spencer, William Spencer, Simon Tuffry, William Tuffry, Andrew Watts. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1770.-Thomas Bale, adj. John Gammel, James Corran, John Crawford, Widow Douglass, Christly Erwin (Christopher Irwin), John Glenn, Benjamin Jolly, Thomas Jeffries, John Kearsley, Thomas Lennox, William Morris, saw-mill, John Morrison, Henry Thompson, Joseph Tull. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1771.-Widow Armstrong, poor, John Brumfield, Alexander Blaine, Benjamin Gailey (Gally), John Harvey, William McConnell, Samuel Scott, adj. Bigham's Gap, Hannah Steen, William Williams, Benjamin Wallace. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1772.-Charles Adams, David Bail, John Bail, William Bree, Thomas Blair, unsettled (it was uncertain whether Blair lived in Lack township or not), William Harvey, Neal McCoy, Richard Murrey, John Rollins, Arsbell White, William Wisley. 

Single Freemen.-Thomas Dyes, William Morris, Nathan Burney, William and James Spencer, William and John Harvey. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1773.-Barnabas Barnes, Joseph Gordon, James Hervey, Mary Killough, John Mahan, William Neely, Joseph McFarland, John Stuart, William Smith, Andrew Watts. 

Single Freemen.-David Beals, Thomas Johnston, Neal McCoy, William Morris, Edward Githins, William Jones, John McMahon, at George McConnell's, Barnabas Nahan, Jonathan Hotten, Michael McCollum. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1774.-John Fleming, Andrew Ferrier, James Glenn, adj. Trough Spring, William Gustin, Nathaniel Innis, Picket Jones, Robert Magaw on Wood's Run, Joseph Wilford, Thomas White. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1775.-John Anderson, Sr., John Anderson, Jr., Robert Arthur, Samuel Bell, William Black, James Black, William Campbell, Jr., Henry Carson, John Calvert, Robert Croan, James Fulton, William Giffin, George Goosehorn, Amos Hoops, Ezra Hoops, John McConnell, James McCutcheon, James McGlaughlin, Thomas Martin, John Mansfield, Jesse Mersey, James Miller, John Mortland, John Morgan, John Murray, Thomas Patton, James Reed, Samuel Shannon, John Smiley, William Walker, Robert Walker, Jeremiah Warder, Alexander Wilson. 

ADDITIONAL NAMES, 1776.-John Agnew, Esq., Andrew Ervin, Robert Grey, John Gill, John Harris, Dennis Hannigan, Andrew Isinminger, John Kelley, John Knox, James Larrimore, Daniel Loughrey, Dominic McNeil, Amos Miser, Samuel Martin, John Potter, Jonathan Robinson, Moses Starr, James Stackpole, William Stewart, George Woods. 

Single Freemen.-Brice Collins, Daniel Campbell, William Harvey, John Morgan, Abel Morgan, John McMahan, Jr., James McFetter, Michael Patterson, John Smiley, Archibald Smiley, Robert Swaine, James Wilson. 

COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP LINES.-It will be remembered that Lack at its formation had no specified limits. It was the settlement called "Tuscarora." The mountains at each side gave it shape on the south and north. The formation of Milford limited it on the east. The west end was undefined and long uncertain. It is very probable that the limits between Lack and Ayr were on the dividing waters running into the Tuscarora and Aughwick. The formation of Dublin township, in 1767, is so imperfectly defined as to the eastern limits that nothing can be determined by it. It was to bound "Ayr and Fannet townships on the one side," but Lack is not mentioned, and there are no dividing lines as to Ayr or Lack. The first Dublin assessment, in 1768, shows no transfer of names from Lack. The only thing that places any part of Dublin east of the Shade mountain is that it was to join on Fannet, which lay on the other side of the Tuscarora Mountain. It is probable that the Tell township waters draining into the Tuscarora Creek were still regarded as part of Lack. One of these streams is called Trough Spring. 

That Lack extended, for many years, much farther up the valley than the present limits of the township and county is very apparent from the tax-lists and records of the Land-Office and the county surveyor's office. 

The original idea that Lack was to take in the whole Tuscarora settlement was not interfered with by anything on the west prior to the formation of Bedford County, in 1771, and as this line was never run, it is probable that most of the few scattered settlers in this region still regarded themselves as in Lack. After the act of April 1, 1791, defining the "north line," more began to fall into their proper townships; but it was not until the line was surveyed under the act of March 29, 1792, that all knew in which county and township they actually lived. By the division of Dublin, forming Tell, in 1810, the ancient seats of these pioneers, so long undefined, fell into the latter township. So it may be truly said, that although Huntingdon is recorded as all taken from Bedford County, yet it did take a slice of what was locally regarded as still a part of "old mother Cumberland." 

TAXABLE INDUSTRIES.-The tax lists of Lack from 1763 to 1831 show assessments on the following in addition to lands and stock. Those that fell into Tuscarora in 1826 are marked "T." 

Anderson, Enoch, 1805. 
Anderson, James, T., 1787-1800. 
Arbuckle, John, 1787. 
Beale, David, T., 1775-1828. 
Beale, Joshua and Jesse, T., 1829-31. 
Fahnestock, John, T., 1829-31. 
Ferrier, Andrew, 1779-82. 
Ferrier, John, 1790-1803. 
Kelly, William, 1820-22 (Waterloo). 
Laughlin, Thomas, 1796-1800. 
Lyon, James, 1820-22. 
Magaw, Robert, 1783-87. 
Morris, William, 1771-73. 
Morrow, Thomas, 1783. 
McConnell, Thomas, 1810. 
McCoy, Neal, Jr., T., 1830-31. 
McCulloch, Samuel, T., 1809-31. 
Patterson, John, 1811-13 (Peru). 
Patterson & Lyon, 1815-16. 
Patterson & Co, 1817-19. 
Patterson, John, 1823-25. 
Patterson & Morrow, 1826-28. 
Patterson, Robert & James, 1830-31. 
Patterson, John, 1823-25 (Waterloo). 
Patterson, William H., 1826-31. 
Shaver, Peter, 1795. 
Shnell, John, Sr., 1795-97. 
Walker, Robert, 1776-78. 
Wallick, Samuel, T., 1809-28. 
Wharry, Thomas, Sr., 1799-1815. 

Anderson, James, T., 1817-31. 
Anderson, Thomas, 1783-95. 
Cook, Christian, 1811-25. 
Cook, Elias, 1826-31. 
Kirk, James, Sr., 1823-31. 
McConnell, Thomas, Sr., 1809-15. 
Reed, John, T., 1814-24, and 1827-31 (now Cook, 1831). 
Reed, John and Jacob Seibert, T., 1825-26. 

Anderson, Enoch, 1806. 
Fahnestock, John, T., 1828-29. 
Kelly, William, 1818-19. 
Lyon, James, 1816-20, & Co., 1819. 
McCulloch, George, T., 1811-14, 1823-24. 
McCulloch, Samuel, T., 1803, '06, '16, '22-'28. 
McCulloch, S. & Joseph Laird, T., 1829-31. 
Okeson, William, T., 1828. 
Patterson, William H., 1825-31. 
Thompson, James, 1819. 
Wallace, Benjamin, 1795, '97, '98. 
Wallick, Samuel, T., 1816-18. 
Wonderlich, John, T., 1830. 

Anderson, Enoch, 1805. 
Anderson, James, T., 1817-31. 
Anderson, Thomas, 1783-1800. 
Beale, David, T., 1778-1831. 
Biaron, John & D. W. Hulings, 1831. 
Fahnestock, John T., 1829-31. 
Ferrier, Andrew, 1779-80. 
Kelly, William, 1819-22. 
Laughlin, Thomas, 1799. 
Lyon, James, 1820-22. 
Magaw, Robert, 1783. 
Morris, William, 1770-73. 
McConnell, Thomas, Sr., 1810-15. 
McCoy, Neal, Jr., T., 1829-31. 
McCulloch, Samuel, T., 1809-31. 
McKee, John, 1826-29. 
Okeson, William, T., 1829-31. 
Patterson & Co., 1817-19 (Peru). 
Patterson, John, 1823-25. 
Patterson & Morrow, 1826-28. 
Patterson, Robert & James, 1830-31. 
Patterson, John, 1823-25 (Waterloo). 
Patterson, William H., 1826-31. 
Reed, John, 1811-16. 
Rhine, George, 1817-31. 
Shnell, John, Sr., 1795-1801. 
Stewart, Thomas, 1805. 
Vance, William, Jr., 1820-25. 
Walker, Robert, 1776-78. 
Wallick, Samuel, T., 1809-28. 
Wharry, Thomas, Sr., 1801-5. 
Wilson, William, 1809-10. 

Anderson, James, 1820-27. 
Cook, Christian, 1820-25. 
Cook, Elias, 1826-27. 
Kirk, James, Sr., 1826-29. 
McCulloch, Samuel, 1820-25. 

Beale, Joshua & Jesse, T., 1829-31. 

Anderson, Enoch, T., 1817-31. 
Anderson, Enoch, Jr., T., 1818-29. 
Anderson, John, T., 1806-31. 
Cook, Christian, 1816-25. 
Cook, Peter, 1823-31. 
Doty, Amos, 1800. 
Hart, Hugh, Jr., T., 1819-31. 
Innis, Joseph, 1816-31. 
Isinminger, Andrew, 1780. 
Laughlin, Matthew, T., 1821-31. 
Magill, William, 1811-25. 
McVitty, Thomas, 1811-15. 
Oyster, Peter, 1800-4. 
Wright, William, 1815-17. 

Beale, David, 1786. 
Black, Robert, T., 1810. 
Boggs, John, Sr., 1796. 
Boggs, Joseph, 1813. 
Brice, William, 1789, '94, '97. 
Brown, William, 1782-83. 
Carson, Henry, 1794-95. 
Diviney, John, 1819-20. 
Dobbs, John, T., 1829-31. 
Douglass, James, 1827. 
Douglass, William, 1810-13. 
Ferrier, Andrew, 1782. 
Ferrier, James, 1796-97. 
Ferrier, John, 1794-1804. 
Forbes, James, 1812. 
Frederick, Nicholas, 1805-10. 
Hart, William, 1794-95. 
Headdon, Noah (2), 1811-22. 
Isinminger, Andrew, 1797-98. 
Jacobs, Benjamin, 1824. 
Kirk, William, Sr. (2), 1812-13. 
Knox, John, 1790-98. 
Lyon, James, 1820-22. 
Magill, Robert, 1817-22. 
Martin, John, 1816-18. 
Moore, John, 1805. 
McClure, John, 1817. 
McCulloch, Samuel, T., 1797-1831. 
McDonald, Samuel, 1794. 
McElroy, Thomas, 1789-90. 
McKee, Robert, 1831. 
Nevill, James, 1792. 
Owens, Daniel, 1826-29. 
Owens, Daniel & Nancy, 1825. 
Patterson, John, 1823-25. 
Patterson, William H., 1825-31. 
Ross, John, 1779-80. 
Shaver, John, 1794-98. 
Shnell, John, Sr., 1792-97. 
Snow, Jacob, 1796-98. 
Thompson, John (2), 1810-15. 
Van Swearingen, Evan, T. (2) 1805-19 (1), 1829-31. 
Van Swearingen, Thomas, 1794-96. 
Wallace, Benjamin, 1798. 
Wallick, Samuel, T. (2), 1809-28. 
Weldon, Patrick, 1805-19. 
Wharry, Thomas, Sr., 1792-1803. 
Williams, William, 1783-89. 
Woods, William (Irish), 1792. 

Barkley, Cornelius, 1828. 
Conn, George, T., 1831. 
Douglass, William & Bartley, C., T., 1826-28. 
Fahnestock, John, T., 1831. 
Gardner, James, 1810. 
Goeshorn, Robert, 1818. 
Laird, William, T., 1823-28. 
Mettlen, Samuel, 1820. 
McCoy, Thomas, T., 1831. 
Patton, Joseph, 1820. 
Rice, Peter, 1818. 
Shnell, John, Sr., 1800. 
Wallace, Benjamin, 1796. 
Wilson, John, 1820. 
Wilson, John & Fagan, 1818.

Lack Township
Part II

History of that part of the Susquehanna and Juniata valleys, embraced in the counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
Edited by F. Ellis and A. N. Hungerford.
Published in Philadelphia by Everts, Peck & Richards, 1886
Pages 733-738

A. L. Guss

EARLY SETTLERS.-Leaving the Peter Shaver lands, at Waterford, we have, first, to the right hand of the road, in a loop next the creek: 
William Kirk, two hundred and sixty acres, occupied already in 1767. In later days one hundred and sixteen acres went to Joseph McMeens and William Wallace, now Kough and Hockinberry; one hundred and sixteen acres to A. J. Ferguson, now partly David Moyer; while about twenty-seven acres belong to Isaac Kirk's heirs. 

Andrew Ferrier had a tract southwest of Shaver's, on the stream that comes out of Horse Valley. He was there in 1774. The foundry and plow-factory of G. W. Kough is probably on this tract. Just above the foundry about one hundred yards, at the head of the dam, there formerly stood the fulling-mill and carding-machines of James Kirk, Sr., 1826 and later. Close to the site of the fulling-mill James Garner had his sickle-mill in 1799. A few rods above there are the remains of an old dam, older than the fulling-mill, and not used for it. It is probable that this sickle-mill was also the location of the Morris, Walker, Ferrier, Magaw, Shaver grist-mill. 

John Harvey, on the left of the road, west of the town, one hundred and forty- four acres, April 28, 1767; sold, May 21, 1789, to Archibald Watts, of Toboyne. Alexander McIntyre got one hundred and twenty-one acres of this land, which composes the present farm of Lemuel Ramsey; and Thomas Bracken got thirty acres. In 1803 there was a saw-mill where Bracken's part joined the run. 

John Shnell owned the tract on the run, just above the McIntyre part of Harvey's tract. Here, about a fourth of a mile above the foundry, at a high bank, and in the very edge of the Mill Run, is a remarkably well-preserved stone wall; it is three or four feet wide, six feet high and forty feet long. It stands eight feet from the bank. There can be no doubt that this is the place that Shnell had his grist and saw-mills, taxed in 1795. 

James Stone, one hundred and twenty-sex acres, April 20, 1763, called "Litharge," adjoining William Kirk and Bracken to the east; now Herman Hockenberry and Harvey Wallace. James Stone had seventy-five acres adjoining this tract surveyed October 8, 1765. His son, John Stone, took up three tracts towards the mountain. 

Captain John Little, or Lytle, one hundred and ninety-four acres, June 10, 1762, on both sides of the creek; surveyed in 1768 by George Woods; sold to Samuel Shannon in 1772; Edward Thatcher, 1778, and his wife, Sarah to 1796; later, Larrimore, and then John Woodsides; now, Matthew Clark, residing on the north side of the creek. 

Captain John Lytle took out a warrant for two hundred acres October 17, 1767; now Daniel Thatcher's, John Burns' and Matthias Stump's land, on the Lytle tract; and on the Thatcher part there were eight or ten acres cleared at an early day by one Woods (tradition says it was George Woods, being on the heads of Woods' Run). It was early abandoned, and today is covered with tall oak timber. 

George Woods was taken by Indians when Fort Bigham was burned; his companion was shot. Woods is said to have been a man of fine education and a good surveyor. He was taken with the others to Kittanning, and after running the gauntlet, was adopted into the tribe, assigned to one John Hutson, who had Jennie Gray, and was taken to Pittsburgh and there he delivered "to the French Governor, Mons. Duquesne." The story of Woods marrying Mrs. Gray is not trustworthy. Woods is said to have taken his captivity little to heart, to have bargained with Hutson for his release, agreeing to give a yearly payment of ten pounds of tobacco during life to the Indian, and which was regularly called for by him for many years. However this may be, Woods got back, and afterwards removed to Bedford, where he became a man of considerable prominence, and was the father-in-law of United States Senator James Ross, who ran against McKean and Snyder for Governor. Woods was one of the surveyors that laid out Pittsburgh. The great business street is named "Wood Street" after him. Tench Francis, agent of the Penns, employed Woods to lay out the town into lots, and for this purpose he moved from Bedford to Pittsburgh, in May, 1784, where he reared a large family and lived to a ripe old age. 

George Woods, July 20, 1762, took up a large tract on both sides of the creek, and covering the mouth of a run on the north side. John Glenn held two hundred and seventy-eight acres of this land west of Lytle. He also warranted sixty-six acres on the right of Woods, March 28, 1767, called "Panama." David Glenn held one hundred and fifty-one acres of Woods' tract (1815-38). In 1820 William Glenn held ninety-nine acres, later John Woodsides, and Robert Brown the other part (thirty acres) in 1838, who also then got the survey of Robert Brice, one hundred and thirty-six acres, September 1, 1767. William Showers now lives here on the north side, and William Robison and Alexander Wallace, late John Woodsides, on the south side of the creek. The stream emptying into the creek on the north side through this tract is called "Woods' Run." 

Alexander McIntyre, one hundred and ninety-four acres, June 4, 1762, adjoining John Glenn and George McConnell, now Alexander Eaton. This was John McIntyre's place. The Cooney tract, so called from a blacksmith, Peter Cooney (1815-28), is now occupied by a James Gray, one of the nine sons of Joseph Gray, all of whom were in the army. 

George McConnell in 1763 held a large tract, part of which is now held by Mrs. Ezra Montgomery and George W. Armstrong. The lower part, three hundred and three acres, was warranted by his son, James McConnell, March 9, 1787, now Rev. J. A. Ross. On the north side of the creek Robert Wright had one hundred and fifty acres, November 7, 1785. 

Thomas Woods, two hundred and twenty acres, February 3, 1755, on both sides of the creek. John Wallace had one hundred and twenty-two acres. Half of each tract (one hundred and seventy-one acres) went to William Neely (1772), and the other half to John Harvey. Harvey's lands now belong to Samuel and Joseph Simonton, and Neely's part, later (1821) James Neely, now Robert Robison. 

George Woods held a tract, the southern part of which now belongs to John Leonard, while W. H. Gallagher occupies the northern part. The small stream emptying into the Tuscarora Creek is called "George's Creek." 

John Wilson, forty-one acres, December 2, 1766; James Harvey, one hundred acres, May 20, 1786, sold by William Brice, tuner, February 21, 1800, to William Neely; William Neely, thirty-five acres, May 21, 1790; John Johnson, a part, November 9, 1809; Manasses Ramsey, a part, January 2, 1810. These parts of larger surveys composed the Arbuckle or Alexander tract. The John Neely part of William Neely, and part of the Johnson tract formed the tract of John Magee and Achia, his wife. John Wright also had a tract February 22, 1785. The Arbuckle tract now belongs to John Leonard and Esquire Henry Titzel. 

William Brice, two hundred and ninety-one acres, December 2, 1766. This is called a "location." On this tract are the village of Waterloo and Williams' grist-mill and lands of Jason Robison, John H. Little, Ezra Montgomery and Absalom Rice. 

Above Brice, on the creek, are three surveys-David Wallace, two hundred and two acres, February 21, 1755; James McCracken, one hundred and forty-six acres, March 25, 1763; and David Wallace, eighty-three acres, March 25, 1763. The last-named is now Absalom Rice and John H. Blair. The McCracken tract is Rice, Blair and Mrs. Dr. Maclay, nee Pomeroy. The early warrant of Wallace proves he had an eye for good land. The region about his lands used to be called "Wallacetown," before Waterloo was laid out. 

David Wallace, May 14, 1767, a tract of which he sold twenty-eight acres to John Brown. It lies at the north end of Waterloo Bridge. Arks were formerly built on the Tuscarora, as far up as Waterloo. 

David Glenn, for fifty-five acres, December 2, 1767, called "Acheron," situated "on a run, including a large deer lick." This tract was enlarged to two hundred and thirty-one acres, and the well-known voting-place, Lick School House, is on it. He also had a tract of one hundred and sixty acres, June 28, 1786, on a corner jutting up to Joseph Douglass, with James McCutcheon above, and John Cook across the stream; McCutcheon, one hundred and eighty-five acres, December 21, 1768; now Samuel Woodside's heirs. One July 28, 1761, Governor Hamilton issued a proclamation, offering one hundred pounds for the arrest of the person who, on or about the 24th of June last, fatally wounded a certain Indian called Thomas Hickman, of the Delaware tribe, with a rifle or fusee, near a deer lick in the valley of Tuscarora, in the county of Cumberland, of which said wound he shortly after died. It is supposed that the act was committed by a white man with intent to murder said Hickman, notwithstanding his well-known constant friendship and attachment to the English during the whole course of the war, which greatly aggravates the horror and wickedness of the deed. 

Above the Tuscarora township line, in the valley next Shade Mountain, is the survey of John Bell, the founder of a well-known family; now Joseph Bell and others. 

Thomas McIlroy, three hundred and thiry-seven acres, May 6, 1768; near McKnight on the south; now James Barton and Thomas Murphy. 

Patrick Murphy made an improvement which was held by him and his children until a recent date without a warrant; now William Thompson and others. It extended west to John Gemmil. 

Robert Levers, of Philadelphia, warranted three hundred and twenty-seven acres, which later was increased to four hundred and three acres, June 4, 1762, on Woods'Run. This tract is now owned by J. C. Burns and W. I. Wilson. The county line crosses it. Matthias Campbell, two hundred and thirty-seven acres, on the county line, south of Levers. East of this and south of Levers was William White, one hundred and five acres; and farther east Thomas Shanks, two hundred and sixty-four acres. 

The name of Captain John Brady, in 1763, in Lack, is pretty conclusive evidence that he was then living there. He had no warrant for the tract, and was probably here for a short period after leaving Shippensburg, and before he settled opposite Standing Stone. He afterwards moved to the West Branch and became a noted Indian fighter, as did also all his sons. 

William McMullen, of Lack township, served in Proctor's Pennsylvania artillery regiment in the Revolution; died about 1622. 

The tract on which Peru Mills is situated was warranted to John Gemmill September 13, 1762; one hundred and fifty acres. Gemmill sold the tract to William Goff, who sold it to Thomas Proviance, and he sold it to John Ferrier in September, 1798. 

On Willow Run, formerly Little Tuscarora, four miles below Peru Mills, lived one Thomas Wharry, who had on the run a small grist-mill from 1799 to 1816. Above this, on the same run, about three miles below Peru Mills, about 1785, Henry Thompson sold John Ferrier his "improvement" right to a tract then "adjoining the surveyed line of Ralph Starrett," where F. Vawn now lives. His father, Andres Ferrier, lived near by. Here they erected a small grist-mill, for which John is taxed as early as 1790. In 1792 Andrew Ferrier, while attending court at Lewistown, slept in a bed, the clothing of which the tavern-keeper had purchased at auction in Philadelphia, and which was infected with yellow fever. Ferrier and a number of others in this vicinity took the fever and died, and they were buried on this old mill property. His son John carried on the grist-mill for some years. Finally, after he purchased the Peru property, he built a mill on it, about 1799. John Patterson came into possession of this property in 1810. In 1812 Patterson rebuilt the mill, and erected a saw-mill in 1816. The grist-mill was since rebuilt. A post-office was established here in 1850, and the name Peru Mills was given to it, that name having been previously given to the place by Mr. Patterson. His son, William H., was postmaster till 1858, and his brother John has held the position ever since. James Lyon was partner of Merchant John, and kept the store as early as 1816. There has been a store here most of the time since, and continuously since 1846. In 1846 a large tannery was built here, the owners of which were W. H. Patterson & Co., then Mathers & Patterson, then W. H. & John Patterson, Then Patterson & Van Dyke, and then John Patterson. It closed in 1872. When in its most flourishing condition this factory tanned out as many as eleven thousand sides of sole-leather in a year. The extensive works are now decaying, but the grist and saw-mills and a store, a couple of good residences and some of the old tenant-houses still serve to make Peru Mills a spot of some note in the upper end of this county. William R. Van Dyke, above-named, was killed at the battle of Dranesville, and his son at the battle of Spottsylvania. After a long, weary ride it is a pleasure to stop with the venerable John Patterson, last living son of Merchant John Patterson, and sit at his feet to hear the "traditions of the elders," of which he knows more than any man now living in the county. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS.-Lack township has eleven schools. They are all frame buildings. 1. North Point, stands on lands of Matthew Dougherty. 2. Rick Hill, on lands of Robert Silverthorn. 3. Cross-Keys, near the Lack post-office. These three are in Shade Valley. 4. Lick, on the lands of ex-Sheriff Walls. 5. Barton's. 6. Rhine's. These three supply the intervening ridges between Shade Valley and the creek. 7. Wallace's, so called from William Wallace, the former owner of the land. 8. McConnell's, so called from John McConnell. 9. Waterloo. There are two public schools in Black Log. The lower one is called the Lauver school- house, being on David Lauver's farm. The upper one is called Smith's, and is on George Hoffman's land. They are both frame buildings. 

About 1808 there was a school-house of pine poles near the site of Upper Tuscarora Church. It was used for a number of years, when the young men made a raid upon it one night and carried the poles to the Tuscarora creek and set them afloat. The next house was of logs and gave place ot a frame, which in turn was replaced in 1858, by the present house in Waterloo. Some of the teachers were Noah Elder (uncle of Judge Noah), Richard Templeton, David Hutchinson, David S. Ferguson, Thomas Price and Nathan Fish. 

In the northern part of the township a house was built of round poles, in which John Keys and David Hutchinson taught. In 1820 a larger house was built near the same site, and Natahn Fish, a one-armed man, taught; also George Deviney and Matthew Clark. William Kerr kept school in an old house that stood in William Neely's orchard about 1813; also Peter Miller, Sr. About 1820 David Hutchinson, David Ferguson and Robert Goshorn taught in a school-house near Matthew Clarks' saw-mill David Glenn, Esq., started it. Thomas Roles, about the same period, raught in a house near the residence of William Behel. Another old building near Jacob Shearer's was used as a school-house by Hutchinson, Ferguson and Deviney. In 1818 William McKinney taught in a house on the Peru farm. The Bartons built a school-house at an early day on their place. On the bank near a good spring on the farm of Robert Pollock, now Vaughn, still an old house used for a school; James Gray and Thomas Thornburg were teachers. Joseph Gray was an old teacher and one of the first board of directors. The number of children in Lack attending schools in 1884 was three hundred and sixty-five. 

Lack township has produced some men who have gone forth to enlighten other regions. Samuel Barton became prominent in the State Education Department of Kentucky. Morrow Campbell, of near Waterloo, became active in the schools of Pittsburgh, and had two sons enter the ministry of the Presbyterian Church. William Van Dyke, when eighteen years of age, was the first to enter the rebel entrenchments at Spottsylvania and was killed in the second advance at a point where the very trees were cut down by the bullets. The McCutcheons, of Waterloo, went to Illinois and Missouri and became noted in various stations. Robert Wallace had sons who made their mark, one being a professor in the University at Wooster, Ohio. 

LACK POST-OFFICE.-One mile and a half west of Peru Mills there is a hamlet commonly called "Cross-Keys," which has a post-office kept by Samuel Markle. It was established in 1863, and given the name Lack. A small store is kept here. The Presbyterian Church, built in 1867, is situated near by-Rev. L. L. Houghawout, present pastor. The land at Lack is on the survey of W. H. Patterson, in right of Patrick Divinney, and called "Colraine." Near Lack is a church, built in 1850, by the Lutherans, called Willow Grove, but which has been used by the Methodists for ten years past, and served from the Concord Circuit. There is a grave-yard adjoining this church. 

AN OLD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.-There was at an early day a Presbyterian Church in Lack township, at what is now known as the McWilliams grave-yard, about three miles above Waterford. It was a small log house, and once supplied the place of the Upper and Middle Tuscarora Presbyterian Churches. The grave-yard is still used for burials and is one of the oldest in the county. The history of this church is lost, but it was probably used until the churches were built at Waterloo and McCulloch's Mills, which was about 1802. 

Waterloo is a small town in the extreme southwestern corner of Lack township. A post-office was established about 1820, and William C. Kelly became the first postmaster. Other postmasters have been William H. Patterson, Josiah McMeen, George Noss, Robert Robinson, J. Robison, G. W. Campbell. The village has one store, and was formerly noted for the manufacture of wind-mills. The academy built by William Campbell, after being used for a few years as a school, was converted into a Presbyterian parsonage and is still so used. In this town is the Upper Tuscarora Presbyterian Church, the pastor of which serves this point and Peru and Shade Gap. The following named persons have been pastors of this church: Rev. Alexander McIlwaine, 1799-1807; Rev. Samuel Bell (first pastor at "Little Aughwick," Shade Gap), 1808; Rev. George Gray, 1825-49; Rev. William Morrison, 1853-57; Rev. G. W. Van Artsdalen, 1860-64; Rev. J. E. Kearnes, 1865-80; Rev. Arthur; Rev. L. L. Houghawout, 1883. 

William Short, who died in 1884, was a pioneer in the Waterloo Methodist Episcopal Church. He and a few others worshipped in a little log church five miles north of Waterloo, built at the instance of James Pollock. About 1836, Colonel George Noss and wife, joined the church at Mitchell's camp-meeting. For some time they held services in the school-house. Their aggressive spirit met with stormy opposition; and to render themselves independent, Short, Noss and others determined to build a church. Noss gave the ground for the church and grave-yard. The frame house, thirty by forty feet, was dedicated in 1842, James Brads and Franklin Dyson being the preachers in charge at that time. In 1858 the building was much improved and reseated. Since 1843 the following have been senior preachres on the Concord Circuit: Elisha Butler, George W. Deems, George Stevenson, Joseph N. Spangler, Robert Beers, Cambridge Graham, Amos Smith, N. S. Buckingham, Frederick E. Creaver, Reuben E. Kelly, James M. Clark, Joseph R. King, Andrew E. Taylor, Seth A. Creveling, W. W. Dunmire, William Schribner, George A. Singer, Joseph A. Ross, Edmund White, A. W. Decker, C. T. Dunning, Levi S. Crone. 

Christian Cook and his son Elias carried on a fulling-mill and carding-machine in the Concord Narrows from 1811 to 1831, when the latter removed to Reed's Gap. 

Black Log Valley is a long, narrow depression, scooped out of the crest of an elevation, the rims of which are known as Shade Mountain on the east and Black Log Mountain on the west. The eastern prolongation of the reunited anticlinal axis is also called Shade Mountain. The denudation in Black Log has cut down to the lower limestone strata, and exposed a strip of good soil. The upper eastern end of this valley is in Juniata County, the other portions in Huntingdon. The Juniata part is inhabited for a distance of eight miles, the upper habitation being little east of opposite Reed's Gap. There are in it two post-offices, one at Oppelville, so called from an educated German farmer who lives there and keeps the office. The other, called Black Log, is farther up the valley, and G. W. Hoffman is postmaster. They were both established in July 1883. The German Baptists have a meeting-house on Charles Glock's farm, a grave-yard, said to be the oldest in the valley. There is a Methodist Episcopal Church at Oppelville, built principally by Mr. Shindle as a Lutheran Church, and so used while he was running the tannery, near by which there is also a grave-yard. The church at Oppelville was at one time used for a school. The act of April 2, 1852, made Black Log Valley, composed of parts of Lack and Tuscarora townships, a separate election district, and fixed the election polls at Centre school-house. 

A large tannery was built in the valley in 1846 by Shindle & Stonebreaker, who were succeeded in order by Lease & McVitty, Samuel Boblits in 1856, Maffett & Shearer in 1863, who closed in 1867. The lumbering business has conducted, and in later years the steam saw-mill has accelerated the devastation of the ancient forests. As the timber disappears, the people give more attention to agriculture. Nearly all of these Black Log lands were warranted about 1794. Most of the owners were non-residents. Many years ago a family named Biaron moved from the city to the valley and put up the frame of a large house, but never occupied it. John Biaron and D. W. Hulings had a saw-mill in the valley as early as 1831. 

There are two early surveys which deserve notice. Francis Innis, Jr., took up a tract of three hundred and five acres March 12, 1786, surveyed the 18th following, "on the road from Carlisle to the Standing Stone," now called the "Kearney Path." East of this was a survey made at the same time, by William Harris, to Stephen Champaigne. Innis was some years a captain among the Indians, and at the French forts in Canada acquired considerable education. He was fond of the wild life and was quite a rover. He served all through the Revolution, and after the closing siege at Yorktown returned with two French companions, Champaigne and Bouderez. They figured in lands in Tuscarora, Black Log and at Shade Gap. Afterwards Champaigne returned to France and left his Black Log lands to his companion, who, in turn, gave the tract to one Kearney, whose house was a landmark on the division line on the formation of Tuscarora township. 

TUSCARORA SLEEPING-PLACE.-Secretary Peters, in 1750, spoke of Sherman's Valley, "through which the present road goes from Harris's Ferry to Alleghany." John Harris, in 1753, passed over this Traders' road. From Andrew Montour's he came nine miles to Tuscarora Hill, then three miles to Thomas Mitchell's sleeping-place, then fourteen miles to Tuscarora, then ten miles to Cave (not Cove) Spring, or Trough Spring, above Silverthorn's Mills, and eight miles more to the Shades of Death, now close to Shade Gap. Some of these points have caused much speculation, and have never been successfully located or explained. We are concerned principally in "Tuscarora." There was a place near the mouth of Path Valley,--that is, near Waterloo,--called the "Tuscarora Sleeping-Place," as appears by an application for land said to be near it. Harris had just named one "Sleeping-Place, " and it is evident that the "Tuscarora" is simply another one of these traders' cabins. We are of the opinion that it was at the mouth of George's Creek. This will practically reconcile the table of distances. 


Milford Township
Part I

History of that part of the Susquehanna and Juniata valleys, embraced in the counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
Edited by F. Ellis and A. N. Hungerford.
Published in Philadelphia by Everts, Peck & Richards, 1886
Pages 749-755

A. L. Guss

MILFORD TOWNSHIP was erected 1768 under the authority of the Court of Cumberland County, of which county it originally formed a part. The following documents were transcribed from the court records at Carlisle: 

" To the Honorable Court of Quarter Sessions, Held at Carlisle the Third Thursday in October, 1768. Greeting: 
" Whereas, the Township of Lack is Very Unconvenient for all Township Offices, it being of such an Extensive Length, viz., of above thirty miles, Which makes us pray your Worships to order a Devision of s'd Township from Tuskarora Mountain, by James Gray's, to William Scot's, at the foot of the Shade Mountain, and your Humble Petitioners Will be In Duty Bound to ever pray. 

"Thos. Beale. 
William Irwin. 
Robert Campbell. 
Clement Horrell. 
Robert Hogg. 
James Christy. 
John Beale. 
William Renison. 
Hugh Quigley. 
William Bell. 
William Christy. 
James Armstrong. 
David McNair, Jr. 
Chas. Pollock. 
Robert Littel." 

November 7, 1768, the court made the following order on the above: 
"Milford Township: To be bounded by Lack, and to run across the valley by James Gray's and William Scot's, throwing these two inhabitants into Lack or the upper part of the valley--the Lower part hereafter to be known by the name of Milford township, etc."

The origin of the term Milford is of course mill-ford or the fording at the mill. 

Milford township is bounded on the east by the Juniata River, on the north by the "Black Log," properly called the Blue Ridge, on the south by Turbett and Spruce Hill, on the west by Beale. It extends up Licking Creek to the Tuscorara line. It is shaped like a pipe, Licking Creek valley being the stem, and the opening of the bowl is at the loop below Groninger's bridge. The front of the bowl is ornamented by the boroughs of Patterson and Port Royal. The lower end of the Licking Creek valley towards the river, after the creek deflects southward, is called Muddy Run. It is drained principally by Licking Creek. The end of the Shade Mountain and the Forge Hill separate the Valley of Licking Creek from the Johnstown Valley; the Herring Bone ridges again, separate the latter from the Tuscarora Creek settlements. 

The names of the early settlers of this township will be found in the history of Lack township. 


Alex. Denniston's heirs. George Glassford. Daniel McClelland. Thomas McKeever. William McCormick. Thomas Millegan. 


Thomas Burchfield. Wm. Donegal Chorran. Joseph Gordon. John Henderson. John Holmes. Philip Land. John Parker, renter. Purviance & Cox. Robert Walker, Jr. 

Single Freemen. 
John Dillon. James Kerr. Robert Kirkpatrick. Neil McCoy. Charles McLaughlin. 
Edward Milligan. 


John Anderson. John Anderson. Arter Ackles. Aquilla Birchfield. Ezekiel Bowen. Bennedy Capler (Benjamin Kepner). John Christy. Samuel Christy. John Dickson. John Eliott. Samuel Fear. Philip Fisher. William Forist. John Freeman. Willism Guston. James Heddleston. Nelas Hearts. Samuel Lyon, Esq. George McCully. Mathew McKaskey. Joseph Poultney. David Scott. William Shaw. William Stuart. Henry Wills. Richard Wilson. 

Single Freemen. 
David Bails. James Camble. Joseph Cashey. John Curry. John Dust. Peter Graham. John Lyon. James McLaughlin. Joseph McMullen. John McClelland. Thomas Moore. Robert Ralston. William Shaw. Hugh Stoop. William Wilson. 


William Bear. John Bowen. John Cunningham. John Dilling (Dillin). Pattis Hart. Richard Hall. Christopher Irwin. James Kiles. Theophilus McDonnald. Joseph McCoy. Edwin Owen. William Wilson. John Williams. Enoch Williams. John Wood. 

Single Freemen. 
John Cunningham. Barney Peterson. Edward Irvin. Nicholas Shrader. Hugh McCully. Richard Wilson. 

Robert Boreland. John Boner. George Crain. Charles Cox. Samuel Davis. Caleb Graydon. Epenitus Hart. William Henderson. Widow Irwin. John Kerr. John Little. John McClelland, Jr. Dudley McGee. Hugh McCully. James Moore. Abraham Stills. Rudolph Stayors. Thomas Turbett. 

Single Freemen. 
John Anderson. Benjamin Lyon. John Sloan. Thomas Bowle. 
Edward Miligan. Alex. Snodgrass. Thomas Gallaher. Joseph McCaskey. 


James Bigham. Thomas Black. Matthew Boreland. Widow Brown. James Campbell. Aaron Cotter. James Crawford. William Gray. John Harris. John Henderson. Francis Hicman. Samuel Kearsley. Samuel Leonard. Joseph McConnell. William McCracken. Thomas McGlaughlin. Daniel Neane. William Orr. Alexander Reed. Joshua Smith. George Stewart. Philip Walker. Samuel Wharton. Thomas Wilson. 

Single Freemen. 
Samuel Bell. Thomas McCahan. Robert Watson. Martin Cunningham. Nicholas Sheridan. John Irvin. Thomas Toner. 


Hugh Black. James Boggs. David Boal. Thomas Boal. James Campbell, Tristram Davis. James Dever. Peter Daly. Dutfchman. Robert Gulliford. William Jones. John Lyon, Jr. Jock Leacock. Dennis Molloy. James Ross. Philip Strouce. William Thompson. James Williams. Alexander Walker. 

Single Freemen. 
Robert Anderson. Benjamin Hickman. John Moon. John Chambers. Thomas Forsythe. Felix O'Neal. Adam Chambers. John Molloy. William Thompson. 

TAXABLE INDUSTRIES, -The tax-lists of Milford township from l763 to 1831 show assessments on the following in addition to lands and stock. Those that fell into Turbett in 1817 are marked "Tt." Spruce Hill was formed out of Turbett and Beale out of Milford at dates later than these lists.

Beale, Thomas, 1768-1804. 
Bollinger, Daniel, 1811-13, chop. m. 
Campbell, Robert, 1768-90. 
Campbell, William, 1791-96. 
Doyle, Richard, 1807-31. 
Evans, Isaac, 1793-95. 
Gilson, Thomas, Tt, 1790-1816. 
Gilson, William, Tt., 1817-31. 
Gish, Matthias, 1820-31. 
Graham, John, William and Samuel, Tt., 1817-28. 
Graham, William, 1813-16. 
Hardy, David, 1790-94. 
Hardy, Thomas, Jr., 1789-92. 
Harris, Thomas, 1779-95. 
Lytle, John, 1797-1831. 
McCrum, Joseph, 1831. 
McCrum, William, 1795-1830. 
Ogden, Isaac, 1787-88. 
Patterson, John, 1811-31. 
Rice, Jacob, Sr., 1805, chopping-mill, 1823-29. 
Stuart, Thomas, 1796-1806. 
Wilson, George, 1798-1819. 

Elliott, Thomas, 1819-31. 
Gilson, David, Tt., 1817-31. 
Gilson, Thomas, 1811-16. 
Hench, Peter & Reese, Tt., 1830-31. 
McAfee, Daniel, Tt., 1820-28. 

Elliott, Thomas, 1826-31. 
Fry, Abraham, 1820. 
Gilson, David, Tt., 1820-31. 
McAfee, James, Tt., 1829. 
Rice, Jacob, Sr., 1820-29. 

Beale, Thomas and William Sterritt, M., 1792-94. 
Evans, Thomas, 1795. 
Cahill, Edward, 1796. 
Sterrett, William, 1797. 
Cromwell, Thomas, 1798-1800. 

Beale, Thomas, 1769-1804. 
Beale, Thomas and Sterritt, William, 1792. 
Bolinger, Daniel, 1811-15. 
Bolinger, Rudolph, 1804-7. 
Burkey, Jacob, 1816. 
Bushy, Jacob, 1818-31. 
Campbell, Robert, l781-90. 
Campbell, William, 1791-96. 
Doyle, Richard, 1812-31. 
Elliott, Thomas, 1819-31. 
Evans, Jesse, 1795-1804. 
Fahnestock, Benjamin, 1798-99. 
Francis, John, 1795-98. 
Gilson, Thomas, 1799-1816. 
Gilson, William, Tt., 1817-31. 
Gish, Matthias, 1820-31. 
Graham, William, Tt., 1813-16. 
Graham, John, William and Samuel, Tt., 1817-28. 
Graham, William, Jr., Tt., 1829-31. 
Harris, Thomas, 1779-95. 
Kepner, Benjamin, Jr., 1805-31. 
King, Lawrence, 1794-1800. 
Lytle, John, 1797-1831. 
Monahan, Michael, 1818-19. 
McCrum, Joseph, 1831. 
McCrum, William, 1796-1830. 
McDonald, Daniel, Tt., 1809-31. 
Norton, James, 1817-19. 
Patterson, John, 1811-31. 
Patton, William, 1790-94. 
Rice, Jacob, Sr., 1804-50. 
Rice, Jacob, Jr., 1826-31. 
Rice, Jacob, Jr., Tt., 1830-31. 
Selheimer & Kirk, 1823-31. 
Selheimer & Norton, 1820-22. 
Stuart, Thomas, 1796-98. 
Turbett, George, Tt., 1820. 
Turbett, Stewart and William, Tt., 1821-31. 
Turbett, Thomas, Tt., 1811-19. 
Wiliams, Samuel, Tt., 1805-31. 
Wilson, George, 1797-1819. 
Wilson, Thomas, 1794-96. 

Norton, James, 1818-19. 
Norton & Selheimer, 1820-22. 
Selheimer & Kirk, 1823-31. 

Cahill, Edward, 1796. 
Creighton, Robert, 1800-2. 
Graham, William, 1776. 
Henderson, Thomas, Tt., 1817. 
Kepner, Benjamin, Jr., 1821, '24, '27. 
Magonigle, Alexander, Tt., 1827. 
Patterson, John, 1796, '99, 1820-26. 
Rowan, Stuarf, 1797-98. 
Stuart, Thomas, 1793-99. 
Stuart, William, 1794-1804. 
Stinson, Thomas, 1820. 
Turbett, Samuel, 1796. 
Wilson, George, 1812. 

DISTILLERIES. Beale, Peter, 1804-12. 
Beale, Thomas & William Sterritt (2), 1794-1803. 
Beale, William, 1804-20. 
Black, Thomas, 1791-92. 
Borland, William, 1779, 1783-87. 
Bushy, Jacob, 1828-30. 
Christy, William, 1787-92. 
Cunningham, John, 1786-97. 
Delaney, Charles, 1805-07. 
Dickey, Nathaniel, 1797-1804. 
Dillon, John, 1804. 
Dillon, John, Jr., 1805-31. 
Elliott, John, 1779-81. 
Feer, William, 1805. 
Finlay (at Hardy's), 1792. 
Frow, Gawin, 1811-23. 
Gallaher, Patrick, 1797. 
Gilson, Thomas (2), 1809-16. 
Glassford, Alexander, 1794-97. 
Glassford, George, 1804. 
Graham, Hamilton, l794-1804. 
Graham, John, Tt., 1809-31. 
Graham, William, Tt., 1787, '96, 1809, '15. 
Graham, William, Tt., 1823-25. 
Gray, Robert, 1797. 
Greer, David (2), 1797. 
Hardy, David, 1820-21. 
Hardy, Hugh, 1782. 
Hardy, John, Sr,, 1779-94. 
Hardy, Thomas, Sr., 1779-94. 
Harris, John, 1804. 
Harris, Thomas, 1782. 
Heddleston, John, l795. 
Henderson, Thomas, 1813-15. 
Huston, Robert, 1779-83. 
Irwin, James, Jr., 1794-95. 
Irwin, William, 1814-19.
Johnson, William, 1824. 
Kelly, William C., 1823-24. 
Kenny, William, Sr., 1791. 

Guss, Simon, 1816. 
Hardy, Hugh, Jr., 1823-31. 
Hardy, William, 1805-07. 
Irwin, Robert, 1820-21. 
Mohler, Rudolph, 1823-24. 
Patterson, James, Tt., 1821-31. 
Shaw, John, 1827-29. 
Showers, Daniel, 1811. 
Stuart, John, 1814-25. 
Stuart, Thomas, 1791-96, 1804. 
Turbett, Stewart & William, Tt., 1821-31. 
Turbett, Thomas, Tt., 1776-1821. 
Vanormer, Joshua, 1821-22. 
Wills, Henry, 1781-82. 
Woodward, James, Sr., 1779. 
Williams, James, 1776. 

Bryner, John, Tt., 1827. 
Casner, George, 1796. 
Henderson, Thomas, Tt., 1817-20. 
Johntz, Henry, Tt., 1825. 
Kelly, John, 1797-98. 
Kepner, Benjamin, Jr., 1812-31. 
Love, James, 1820. 
McClelland, Joseph, 1796. 
Okeson, Nicholas, 1796-1812. 
Patterson, John, 1796, '99. 
Rice, Jacob, Sr., 1812. 
Rife, Samuel, 1820. 
Stewart, Thomas, Tt., 1827. 

Abraham, Noah, 1800-06; heirs, 1807-30. 
Gross, Henry, 1817-26. 
Kepner, Benjamin, Sr., 1827-31. 
Law, Benjamin, 1816. 
Love, James, 1816-21, occpt. 
Love, John, 1822-24. 
Mettlen, Samuel, occpt., 1807-15. 
McClelland, Joseph, 1791-1800. 
Robinson, John, 1817. 
Sanderson, James, 1811-15. 

Beale, Thomas, 1780. 
Blair, John, 1780. 
Lyon, John, Jr., 1780-82. 
Lyon, Samuel, 1780. 
Stewart, George, 1780. 
Wills, Henry, 1780. 

SHAD FISHERY. Cummings, William, 1826. 

Kinzer, John, 1813-16. 
Little, Robert, 1779-97. 
Lyon, James (2), 1810-11. 
Lyon, John, 1779. 
Lyon, John, Jr., 1780-86. 
Lyon, Samuel, 1778-82. 
Milliken, Edward
, 1794. 
Monahan, Michael, 1807-13. 
McCahan, Alexander (2), 1809. 
McCahan, John, Sr., 1804-07. 
McClelland, Joseph, 1792-97. 
McCrum, James, 1796-97. 
McCrum, James, Jr., 1825-31. 
McCrum, John, 1831. 
McCrum, William, l794. 
McFadden, Samuel, 1789. 
McKee, John, Sr., 1792, 1814, '16. 
McKee, Robert, 1809-13. 
Orr, John, 1781-86. 
Parks, Alexander, 1796-97. 
Patterson, John (2), 1794-11; (1), 1811-31. 
Pigsler, Jacob, 1805-13. 
Pollock, Charles, 1779-88. 
Reed, Alexancler, 1779. 
Reed, Alexander, Jr,, 1779-82. 
Rice, Jacob, Sr., 1801. 
Rice, Peter, 1805-28. 
Robison, Alexander, Sr., 1779-86. 
Robison, Alexander (at Hogg's), 1794-95. 
Ross, John, 1781-1812. 
Sheets, George, 1811-13. 
Sterrett, William (2), 1795. 
Stuart, George, 1821-22. 
Stuart, George & N. Martin, 1820. 
Stuart, John (2), 1797-1810. 
Stinson, Thomas, 1811-28. 
Wharton, William, Sr., Tt. (2), 1810-1811 ; (1), 1813-31. 
Williams, Norris, 1786-97. 
Wills, Henry, 1780-1807. 
Wilson, George, 1813-16; (2), 1811-12. 
Wilson, Thomas, 1779-96. 
Woods, John, 1780. 
Wilson, Abraham, 1780-83, 1790-97. 

Barnard, Joseph, 1822. 
Bryner, John, 1820-31. 
Burns, John, 1823. 
Graham, Samuel & William, 1820-22. 
Henderson, Thomas, 1817-19. 
Hoke, David, 1821-22. 
Irwin, William, 1820. 
Lauver, John, 1829, '31. 
Martin, Nathaniel, 1828, '31. 
McAfee, James, 1826-29. 
McCracken, William, 1824, '26. 
Rice, Samnel, 1825-26. 
Robison, Alexander, 1820. 
Robison, Alexander & Thomas Henderson, 1820-21. 
Woods, Robert, 1826-28. 

EARLY SETTLERS.- John McClellan had previously lived in Franklin County, He belonged to a family still numerously represented in that region. He settled on the river-bank, at the present site of Patterson. His warrant, September 8, 1755, called for five hundred and fifteen acres below, on the river. 

McClellan's wife was a Widow Houston, whose maiden-name was Catharine Buchanan,-a sister of the father of President Buchanan. Her first husband belonged to a family of that name in this region, from whom the celelrated Sam, Houston, of Texas, was descended. 
[By her frst marriage she had two daughters,--Jane and Sarah. Jane was the wife of John Elliott, a Revolutionary soldier, and was, in 1763, one of the twelve men who came over from Perry County after the Indians that killed the people at White?s, Campbell's and Anderson's, and were themselves waylaid and half their number killed. Elliott's daughter, Catharine, was the mother of Hugh T. McAlister, Esq. Sarah was the wife of Andrew Douglass, elsewhere named as wounded at Kittanning, but who lived to an old age.] 
Mrs. Catharine Buchanan Houston, by her second marriage, to John McCllellan, became the mother of Daniel, Joseph, John, Jr., and perhaps other sons, Nancy (wife of James Sanderson), Catharine (wife of William Lyons and then of James Hite). One of Hite?s stepdaugbters was the wife of John Lytle, Esq., and mother of Robert, James, John and David Lytle, later well known in Blair County. 

Daniel McClellan was a soldier with his brother John, and was at Quebec in 1775. He went to Kentucky. On October 22 1776, he applied for two hundred acres of land "on Licking Creek, higher up the creek than the Fort Granville road." Aquilla Burchfield afterwards had seventy-five acres surveyed under it in "Hammer Hollow." 

Joseph McClellan kept the ferry at Patterson, as elsewhere noted. He also taught school in Mifflintown. He removed to Franklin County; his wife never returned; but he died in Mifflintown. 

The old pioneer lived many long years on Clayland; then moved over the hills to the banks of Licking Creek, where he lived with some of his descendants, and he died about 1804, at a ripe old age, one-half a century after he first penetrated this (then) wilderness. His widow survived him. A lively town has sprung up on the land which he, by muscular force, cleared of its ancient forests; and of the hundreds living here in comfort, how few have ever even heard of John McClellan! 

" Lieutenant John McClellan, son of John McClellan, at Patterson, was the first commissioned officer from this county in the cause of American freedom. He lived either on the Kepner farm below town, or possibly on the part of his father's tract above town. He had a wife and daughter. Shortly after the breaking out of the Revolution, William Hendricks raised a company in Cumberland County, as it then was, for Colonel William Thompson's regiment, which marched to Boston. A large part of the regiment was recruited in Juniata and Perry Counties. Some fifteen on the roll of eighty men in this company, of which McClellan was lieutenant, can be identified as residents of Juniata, and as many more correspond to the names of residents here about that time. They were a set of tall, hardy, bold frontiersmen, excellent marksmen, and attracted a great deal of attention along the route as they marched on foot from their homes all the way to Boston. They were dressed in homespun, armed with their own guns, and undisciplined. 

About the 1st of September, Washington sent Benedict Arnold to Quebec to enlist the Canadian Provinces. The plan was to go by the way of the Kennebec and Dead Rivers, through the Wilderness, and down the Chaudiere River to Quebec, and capture this key to the upper St. Lawrence and the Lakes. It was a most fearful undertaking. After lying for a time in front of Boston, Hendricks' company, and that of Matthew Smith, of what is now Dauphin County, started September 11, l775, with the detachment which made the memorable expedition to Quebec. With the former company went McClellan, who died near Quebec, a martyr to the cause of liberty. 

"They were two months on the march and for a good part of that time on short allowance. So desperate became their condition that dogs were killed and eaten. Even shoes and shot-pouches were boiled and eaten. John Joseph Henry, then a young man of seventeen, who passed through this ordeal, in after-life a judge of the Lancaster, York and Dauphin County Courts, wrote a narrative of the 'Expedition against Quebec,' from which are taken a few extracts relating to McClellan. On November 2d, after leaving Chaudiere Lake, some of the boats were wrecked at a cataract in the river, and McClellan, who had previously been in an enfeebled condition, was one of the injured. Judge Henry, who came upon the party, who, having lost all but their lives, were sitting around a fire on the shore, says 'Oh, God! what were our sensations. Poor McClellan was ... lying by the fire. He beckoned to us. His voice was not audible, Placing my ears close to his lips, the words he uttered, scarcely articulate, was "Farewell." Simpson, who loved him, gave him half the pittance of food he still poseessed, All I could give was - a tear.'

"The short, but melancholy story of this gentleman, so far as it has come to my knowledge of him, commenced in the camp near Boston. He was endowed with all those qualities which win the affections of men. Open, brave, sincere and a lover of truth. 

" On the Dead River the variable wind brought on a cold, which affected his lungs. The tenderness of his friends conducted him safely, though much reduced, to the foot of the mountain, at the head of the Dead River. Hence he was borne in a litter across the mountain by his fellow-soldiers, Captain Hendricks assisting. From our camp McClellan was transported in the boat to the place where we found him. The crew conducting the boat ... descended unaware of the pitch before them, until they got nearly into the suck of the falls. Here, luckily, a rock presented, on which it was so contrived as to cause the boat to lodge. Now the crew, with great labor and danger, bore their unfortunate lieutenant to the shore where we found him. 

"McClellan was left behind and two Indians were sent back for him in a canoe. They found him and three days later brought the then dying man to the first house down the stream. The following day he died, and his corpse received a due respect from inhabitants of the vicinage." 

Thus, on Nov. 9, 1775, about eighty miles above Quebec, perished Lieutenant John McClellan, whose youth was spent where now flourishes the pleasant town of Patterson. His mother's name was Elizabeth Martin. McClellan's infant daughter was named Priscilla. November 6, 1787, Pennsylvania voted her a pension of one hundred and eighty pounds, in care of her grandfather. [Col. Rec. xv. 312] In later years she married David Greer, a weaver by trade. Priscilla Greer's daughter, Margaret, was the wife of Captain John H. McCrum, father of Colonel Ephraim B. McCrum. John Greer lives in Scranton. Jane moved to Selma, Ala. Betsey, the last of Priscilla's children in this county, died in 1885. 

Among those who enlisted with McClellan from Juniata were Third Lieutenant George Francis, Sergeant William McCoy (afterwards second lieutenant of the Ninth Pennsylvania Line), Thomas Anderson, Joseph Caskey, John Chambers, Arthur Eccles, John Henderson, James Hogg, Daniel McClellan, James Reed, William Smith, Abraham Swaggerty, Joseph Wright and John Hardy (of whom, see an account under Milford township). 

John McClellan, Sr., gave his son John, Jr., one hundred and one acres, in 1773, off the upper part of his tract. As his son died in the war a little later, he sold part of this tract to Thomas Gallagher, father of Robert C. Gallagher, long a well-known merchant in Mifflintown. It has been since known as the Wright farm; now Henry Groninger. Near by Gallagher had a shad fishery. 

Thomas Gallagher came from Ireland; first lived with the Nelsons at Cedar Springs, then just above the Patterson Machine-Shops. He died in 1807; his children were Lucretia, Mary Ann, Thomas Andrew Nelson (the printer), Robert Cooper (the merchant), Harriet and Sophia. 

Above this, on the river, was the Caleb Graydon survey of January 29, 1767. He sold it to Conrad Schue (Shuey), who moved upon it in 1791, and while there was instrumental in introducing Henry Ache (Aughey), Sr., also of Huguenot stock, his sister's husband, to purchase land and remove to the township in 1803. Shuey was an elder and active promoter of the first Lutheran organization in Mifflintown. He removed to Westmoreland County. 

Above this is a tract of two hundred and eighteen acres, warranted August 4, 1767, to William Speedy. A small rift in the river, opposite, was called "Purdy's Riffles." He removed to Wyoming, for what reason is not known; but he there identified himself with the Connecticut people in their efforts to hold the land as far south as forty-first degree of latitude, which passes a mile north of Lewisburgh. 

In December, 1776, Speddy volunteered in Captain John Clarke's company of Northumberland County, and served during the campaign of Trenton and Princeton. In 1782 he was one of the assessors of Buffalo township. His signature to the asessment is in a full, round, beautiful hand. In 1786 he disappears from the assessments of that county, but reappears in that year in Fermanagh tomnship, where he continues until 1791. He lived at a place called Speddy's Gap, near McAlisterville, where he died. He had a son William, Jr., who appears upon the tax-lists of Milford from 1782 to 1787, and in Fermanagh from 1791 to 1814, and his heirs to 1828, He had a son named Alexander, who was long known in Mifflintown as "A. Speddy Tailor," the name being pronounced "speedy." The last-named was the father of Editor John W. Speddy, of Port Royal. A further account of William Speddy will be found in the History of Union County. The lands of Speddy in Milford township later passed to John Elliot; are now owned by Baltzer Lauver. The Granger Picnic-Grounds are on the Speddy tract. 

Above Speddy, on the river, is the survey of Agnes Wilson, three hundred and ten acres, April 2, 1767, of which tract Aaron Cotter got one hundred and thirty-eight acres, June 8, 1796. From him, a very deep place in the river near by has been known ever since as Cotter's Hole. Into this, it is related, some benevolent persons threw a cannon, used in former days for firing salutes at Mifflintown on the fourth of July, which had been the means of killing and wounding a number of persons. Another story is that it was done to prevent rival claimants at Lewistown from getting possession of the cannon. 

Above this lived James Aiken. His survey had one hundred and sixty- seven acres, extending up to the Trout Run, and has on it now the station called Milford Siding. As far back as 1768 one Robert Gorrel, or Gorewell, lived here, and claimed these lands at the fording. They are now owned by George Heikes. Above this John Harris warranted sixty-eight acres, March 7, 1785, reaching round the end of the mountain, having on it the Black Log water plug. Here Foreman W. Cloyd Guss was killed by a passing train in January, 1882. Near by once lived a colored man named John Hall, who called himself "a one-horse Methodist preacher," and held forth to his brethren "up in Macedony." Before the making of the railroad there was no travel up the Narrows on this side of the river. 

Above Agnes Wilson, westward, John Wilson took up one hundred and eighty-seven acres on warrant 4897. It was long the McCrum place, now heirs of James McKnight. Wilson's sons were Nathaniel and William.

Milford Township
Part II

History of that part of the Susquehanna and Juniata valleys, embraced in the counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
Edited by F. Ellis and A. N. Hungerford.
Published in Philadelphia by Everts, Peck & Richards, 1886
Pages 755-762

A. L. Guss

John Hardy warranted two hundred and twelve acres, and Alexander Robison two hundred and thirty-six acres, both February 23, 1767. These are choice lands. The former is now owned by James North, but before him by three John Hardys in successive generations. The latter tract has long been known as the Doty farm. Once it was leased to Henry Rice, of whom it is related that he had the farm all in one field, with a road through the middle, and that he sowed wheat every year; and that having some litigations with the Robisons, he said, "The grain on this side of the lane I keep to pay law-suits--the other side I raise to sell." 

The Hardys and Robinsons seem to have come together to America. They were cousins or brothers-in-law. They are on the tax-list of 1763, and then lived near Robert Hogg in Spruce Hill. Being driven off by Indians, they served in the campaign of Bouquet. On their return they found their lands surveyed to others. They then came to "Muddy Run" and bought out the squatter claims of one William or Robert Robison. Robison's children were James, who married Jean Hardy, daughter of Thomas; Sarah, wife of John Cunningham; Alexander married Jane Sanderson; John moved to New Lancaster, Ohio; Elizabeth, wife of Alexander Sanderson; Margaret, wife of Joseph Shaver; Thomas, married to an Elder, then to Betsy Steel. James' children were Alexander, married Elizabeth Moy; Thomas, married Catharine Partner, then Nancy Marley; Ellen, wife of Alexander McCahan ; John, married Jane Kincaid, then Mrs. Mary Marley (he is the now venerable John Robison, living in Patterson); William, married Mary Selheimer. The children of Thomas were James, John P., Mary, Thomas, Catharine, William, Jane and David H., late superintendent of public schools. 

John Hardy's children were William, James, John, Isabella, Betsey (wife of John McCormick) and Jonathan. John's children were James and John. The Hardy race were numerous until within a few years past. The Robisons are a host in and out of the county. 

Thomas, a brother of John Hardy, lived in Carlisle a winter, then moved on Wilson's tract (Port Royal). He took up a tract of poor land in Turbett, but soon bought the McGuire tract, now William Guss', on Licking Creek, where be died about 1795. 

Thomas Hardy's children were Hugh, John, Jean, William, David, Alexander and Thomas, Jr., some, if not all, of whom were born in Ireland. On the run, about one hundred yards above the "Sink Hole," they had a still-house, in the loft of which William kept school, and here our aged friend, John Robison, of Patterson, got his education, under his uncle. When Thomas Hardy died there was some trouble among the heirs. John Hardy, John Hamilton, Alexander Robison, John and William Cunningham were chosen arbitrators to devise a plan of settlement, who, having taken " a vew" of all matters in dispute, decided that certain things were to be accounted for to the executors and the estate divided equally, except as to Thomas, Jr., who was "not to account for anything," and "to receive one-half child's share." 

One has to wonder what Thomas Hardy and his lot of hardy boys did during all the long years they occupied this farm. As late as 1778 they had only eighteen acres of land cleared. They lived in a cabin, and it is certain they never got rich. The boys likely followed hunting and fishing. Thus the years passed by. One thing broke in on this dull monotony. Young John enlisted, in 1775, with Lieutenant McClellan. On January 1, 1776, in the attack on the "Barriers," he, together with many others, was taken prisoner. Colonel McClean went among these men to ascertain who among them were of European birth, threatening to send all such to England to be tried for treason. He recruited a regiment from among these poor fellows, who shrank from being thus carried away for trial. Among these was John Hardy. After the Revolution closed he came back to his friends on Licking Creek, and excused his conduct as a matter of compulsion; but the loyal Whigs of those days never forgave him for his defection. He had taken the oath of allegiance to the British government; had, it was said, accepted a commission in the British army; and had married a wife in England before he returned to America. They used to have "musterings" in olden days. On one of these occasions, when warmed up with patriotism and whiskey, there were threats of lynching Hardy for his defection to the cause of independence. Hardy then went to Canada. There he got some lands from the government for his services, and there his descendants are to this day. One of his daughters, who had married a clergyman, visited Juniata many years ago, but John never returned. He persuaded his brother Alexander to move to Canada (1798), and afterwards sent him back with a power of attorney to lift his share of his patrimony in the old farm, L293 13s. 7d., "in full for his brother, John Hardy's, share of the estate of their father, Thomas Hardy." 

When the course of John Hardy became known at home, his brother Hugh became also tinctured with Tory proclivities. He was a talkative man, somewhat officious and fond of expressing his sentiments. The resentment of his more loyal neighbors was aroused, James Horrel, who was appointed to look after the malcontents, said he had more trouble with Hugh Hardy than all the rest of the township. It culminated, at last, in his forcible seizure, with a view to some trial or imprisonment at Carlisle. After reaching the top of the Tuscarora Mountain, Hugh let up on his Tory sentiments and promised to be a good loyal subject of the State, instead of the province, of Pennsylvania. They set him at liberty; but it never suited him after that to get into angry collision with any one, or he would be reminded of "the time he was tied with hickory withes and taken to the top of the Tuscarora Mountain." In after-years he took an active part in public affairs and became well known, which may account for the error concerning his early settlement. But there are yet living descendants of the first settlers, who were always true to the cause of independence, who do not like to see history perverted to honor a British sympathizer as the first settler. 

Between the Robison snd Hardy tracts and the Forge Ridge there was a tract long known and taxed (1781-98) as the "Peddler's Tract." The peddler must have gone down into the Deep Spring above Bealetown. He was probably one Philip Connelly, who, October 7, 1766, applied for one hundred and fifty acres "adjoining John Hardy." Hardy and Robison in after-years took up this land, and it is the tract on which Shelburn Robison now resides. 

James Calhoon warranted two hundred and ten acres June 3, 1762. When Calhoon applied for this tract it was "to be surveyed to him adjoining David Reed and Robert Robison." By the time he got it surveyed, April 25, 1765, William Robison is the adjoiner below on the Doty farm, and Thomas McGuire above. Calhoon, on August 3, 1790, signed a deed in Armagh township to William McCormick, who sold this land to Henry Aughey, Sr., April 12, 1803, for fourteen hundred pounds, which Aughey brought up with him from Dauphin County in specie, having fourteen bags, each containing one hundred pounds. Aughey's son, Sarnuel, and his grandson, Jacob, still reside on this tract, The McCormicks sold this good limestone land because they thought it was so worked out that they could not make a living upon it. McCormick moved to Kentucky. Cyrus McCormick, the inventor of the reaper, was a descendant of his brother. 

The Licking Creek Lutheran Church stands on the upper line of this tract. This organization was formed from the Mifflintown congregation. The church was erected in 1861, and dedicated about the close of that year. Samuel Aughey, Sr., who gave the ground, named it "St. Stephen's," but it commonly goes by the name of "The Licking Creek Church." The ministers serving this congregation, in connection with that at Mifflintown, were Rev. R. H. Fletcher, Rev. D. M. Blackwelder, Rev. E. E. Berry and Rev. Philip Graif. 

Thomas McGuire warranted two hundred and eleven acres October 5, 1767. He sold it to Thomas Hardy, the father of John and Hugh Hardy. McGuire had warranted a tract in Turbett, near Old Port, where he lived a short time and then moved on tbe McGuires' tract. From Hardy's heirs the farm passed to Merchant John Patterson, who sold it to Abraham Guss, Sr., father of the writer, who sold parts of it to Samuel and Henry Aughey. The graveyard adjoining the church is on the part bought by the latter, and given by him for the purpose. The mountain-streams on this and the last-named survey sink before reaching the creek. The underground stream reaches the river below Milford Siding. On this tract Abraham Guss, Sr., erected a saw-mill. The springs here have a known origin at the Trout Run above, over a fourth of a mile distant. As the writer first saw light on this farm, the region is crowded with many cherished memories. 

Back of this, at the foot of the ridge, the surveyor says November 11, 1814, he found a man called Nipple, who had a large cabin-house and two acres cleared. Here Jane Dayly helped her husband catch live fawns and wild turkeys. It is now held by Richard Nankivel. Considerable iron-ore has been taken out along the foot of the ridge. 

William Cunningham came to the Partner place in 1762. He came back, in 1763, to cut grain and pull at flax. He and his daughters took alarm and fled over the Tuscarora Mountain on the night of July 10th, and escaped the Indians. He returned in 1766, and died, and was the first person buried in the grave-yard at Academia. His resting-place is unmarked, but is in the middle of the yard. His wife, Elizabeth, took up a tract of three hundred and twenty-three acres, October 29, 1766, in trust for his heirs. From them the several tracts have descended to Cloyd Horning, William C. and William M. Partner and Charles Waream. There was a man once living on this farm who raised Beans six feet long and upwards; his name was John Bean. Henry Wills, two hundred and sixty-four acres, and was owned by John Cunningham, Samuel Mettlen, Joshua Shuman; now John Wetzler, Mrs. Zimmerman and others. Here the Fort Granville path crossed Licking Creek. 

In her application Mrs. Cunningham says that her husband made "an improvement" on this tract five years before the date of her application, which would be in 1761, and we know of no older settlelllent on the creek. The survey made in 1767 calls the mountain to the north the "Shade." The house stood one hundred yards east of the present brick, was built of unhewn logs, had a split-log floor, a floor of poles above, and a roof of rude clapboards. Mrs. Catharine, wife of Jacob Partner, who long lived on this place, had a most remarkable memory. She told a curious story of the escape of the Cunninghams, in 1763. They fled because of a warning given by a rooster, which persistently came inside of the door and crowed so lustily that they became alarmed. The children were William, died 1836, ancestor of all of the Cunninghams in the county; John, married Sarah Robison, of Alexander, and ancestor of those in Huntingdon County and A. B. Cunningham, of Philadelphia; Richard,moved to New Jersey; David, moved to New York; Sarah (Carson); and Mary(McDonwel). William, Jr.'s, children were David, Richard, John, Sally (Phillips) and Elizabeth (Jeffries). They have all been very excellent citizens. 

John Partner, who got the Cunningham mansion, came to Juniata with Henry Aughey. He served during the Revolutionary War, and his grandson, Abraham G., still has the old musket which he carried in the war. His name appears as "Portner" in Benjamin Weiser's company of the Pennsylvania German Regiment. His children were Jacob, Catharine (Robison), Elizabeth (Hardy), Mary (Nipple). John married Margery Mettlen and moved to Deep Cut, Ohio, wither his father went, and died there. 

Above Wills came in Henry Graham, warrant October 27,1766, for two hundred and ninety-six acres. Pat McCahan and Fred Nipple held this tract in 1812. There was formerly a pretty rough set of people in the upper end of this valley, and it was a common saying that Sunday never got up Licking Creek farther than the residence of Alexander McCahan. At the school-house here the Methodists formerly had an organization and stated services. On the upper end of this tract was located the great tannery of Singmasters, Miller, Lippencott & Co. 

Above Graham, Andrew Douglass, who was wounded at Kittanning under Armstrong, warranted a tract of one hundred and eighty acres, October 23, 1766. In 1770 it belonged to John McClellan. The factory dam was on the lower end of this tract. On the upper end Norton & Selheimer erected a paper-mill. 

Above Douglass, next the so-called Black Log Mountain, was Jacob Pigsler; but before this in 1812, Pigsler was on the Douglass tract. (Road from Pigsler's on Licking Creek, to river opposite Mifflin, six and one-half miles and fifty one perches, from Pigsler's to Lytle's mill, say seven miles.- Wm. Beale's Notes.) 

Thomas Husbands had three hundred and eight acres above Douglass, August 1, 1766. It was returned May 6, 1782, to Samuel Wallis "on Leeking Creek, adjoined lands formerly claimed by William White, deceased, and to include a deadening made for Robert Campbell. William Reese applies for the same." Here lived Leman Burdens; later Joel Dewalt, and later his son-in-law, David Hough, a well-known surveyor. There was a saw-mill here, and lumber was a principal product. Herding cattle between the mountains was also followed in the summer season. 

Above this William Reese took up, on the same day, three hundred acres. Between these tracts and the Shade Mountain Joseph Jacobs had a long strip and an improvement now abandoned. Above this yet lay the surveys of Thomas Say, three hundred and thirty-three acres, adjoining James Stewart; then Moses Bartram, three hundred and forty acres; then Jonathan Carmalt, three hundred and seventy-nine acres. These lands took in the Big Thickets and the desolate regions where the deer, wolf and bear hold dominion to this day. 

John McClellan, November 28, 1798, took up eight acres, on which he died. Locust Grove school-house is on the lower end of it. 

James Rodman owned one hundred and sixty-eight acres between McClellan and Licking Creek. March 25, 1792, he articled with Beale & Sterrett, of the forge, for the sale of one hundred and fifty-six acres. Edward Cahil kept the forge store in the upper story of the stone spring-house on this tract, which is known as the old David Cunningham farm. The Baptist Church and graveyard are on the upper corner of the Rodman survey. It was built in 1828, and has a yard adjoining, containing a large number of graves. Services are now seldom held there. It was built in place of the church abandoned at Spruce Hill. Beale & Sterrett built a forge in 1791, on Licking Creek, just below where Rohm's grist-mill now stands, The dam crossed the creek one hundred yards below that mill, where a couple of large piles of stones still mark the spot. They took up a large body of the ridge land, still called Forge Ridge, a small strip of which came down to the creek where the forge stood. Beale's warrant was dated February 26, 1790; resurveyed on an order to William McCrum, dated June 15, 1819,and contained four hundred and thirty-nine acres. The western limits extended as far as the Red Bank school-house. 

Dennis Christie had one hundred and nine acres above the forge, on an order of February 14,1767. The upper part extended across the creek and reached up the stream as far as the road over the creek at Abraham Guss, Jr.'s., where he adjoined William Erwin on the west side of the creek. On this tract stood the grist and saw-mills erected by Ogden, and run later by the Hardy boys. William McCrum rebuilt the mill of stone. From his son, John H. McCrum, it passed to Daniel Spiece, who tore down the stone mill and rebuilt the new one now standing at the lower end of the survey, near the forge, and which he sold to J. Shelburn Robinson, from whom it passed to Ferdnand Rohm, the present owner. February 19, 1774, Christy sold John McClellan, Jr., two hundred acres, extending from the Rodman meadow up the creek to Thomas Hardy's land, and in the ridges adjoining the improvement made by Samuel Henderson. 

William Erwin, or Irwin, took out an order February 1, 1767, and had one hundred and forty-two acres surveyed under it, to which sixty-one acres were afterwards added. It extended across the creek and took in the lands at David Partner's blacksmith-shop. The tract was owned later by Hugh Hardy, and then by his son, Christopher Hardy, Esq., and now by Elder Gilliford, David Kerlin and others. On the flat near the creek, below the smith-shop, the Hardys had their tan-yard. 

Above Erwin, on the creek, April 27, 1767, there was taken up two hundred and six and sixty acres by John Buchanan, and "if over three hundred acres, the upper part to James Buchanan, Jr., named Widow's Delight, so-called." Here Lewis Shuman and David Sulouff lived; now Joseph Sheesley. 

Passing up the Shuman Run, around the end of the Shade Mountain, we come to a tract warranted No. 1652, to Daniel McClellan, October 22, 1766, two hundred acres, which he said was to be "on Licking Creek, higher up the creek than the Fort Granville road in Lack township, Cumberland County." The survey was returned for Aquilla Burchfield, seventy-five acres. The land is in a depression between a ridge and the Shade Mountain, and has been called "Hammer Hollow," from the blacksmith-shop of Samuel Kerlin, who, as a true Vulcan, long served the people for a radius of many miles. A man named Voegle now resides upon it. 

Perhaps no people who have ever resided within the present limits of Juniata County have been as remarkable in business circles as those descended from John Lyon, Sr. The name Lyon has been favorably known all over the State for more than a hundred years. As early as 1750, William Lyon was in Carlisle assisting his uncle, John Armstrong, in laying out that town. John settled at the Sterrett place, in Milford. In 1767 he had two hundred acres, ten acres cleared, two horses and two cows. He died about 1780; had six children,--William, James, Samuel, John, Jr., Molly and Frances. 

William Lyon married Rebecca Graham, sister of William Graham, Esq., of Tuscarora, and did surveying under Armstrong in Juniata. His son, George A., was cashier of the Carlisle Bank. 

James Lyon settled on Juniata. His children were William, James, Margaret (wife of Judge John Oliver), Elizabeth (wife of John McVey), Nancy (wife of John Patterson, Esq.), Isabella (wife of John Patterson, merchant), Mary (wife of Robert, father of Robert Forsythe). After the death of the parents, Nancy and Isabella (twins) were taken by their grandmother Lyon to raise. When she died they were taken by their aunt, Mrs. Fanny Graham. When grown up they married the cousins, the John Pattersons, Esquire and merchant, and their blood has come down in the veins of several hundreds of our best citizens. One of the merchant's daughters married Robert Sterrett, so that part of the old homestead is again in the hands of John Lyon's descendants. 

Samuel Lyon moved on the Kelly place, and soon became a leading man in the community. May 21, 1770, be was made justice of the peace. He also did a great deal of surveying in this region. He removed to Carlisle about 1781, and was register and recorder in 1794. The first James Blaine in America had a son Ephraim and a daughter Elenor, who was the wife of our Samuel Lyon; and their daughter Margaret married James Blaine (2d), who was a son of Ephraim. Their son, Ephraim Lyon Blaine, married Maria Gillespie, and they are the parents of the Hon. James G. Blaine, of Maine. In other words, Margaret Lyon, the grandmother of the Hen. James G. Blaine, was born in Milford township about 1775, in which year, June 24th, the Rev: Philip Fithian observed in these backwoods the unusual phenomena at Samuel Lyon's house, namely: "He lives neat, has glass-windows and has apparently a good farm." 

John Lyon, Jr., married Mary, daughter of John Harris. He took up additional tracts adjoining his father's surveys, in 1793. By the will of his father, December 9, 1779, he gave young John a tract of four hundred and thirty-nine acres, extending across the valley from ridge to ridge. He sold this to Stephen Doughman June 1, 1797, who, on April 4, 1806, passed it to James, father of Robert and William Sterrett. Lyon then moved to Armstrong County. 

Molly Lyon married Benjamin Lyon, who was a tailor by trade, served as captain in the Fifth Pennsylvania Line in the Revolution; lived at Peru Mills from 1816 to 1821, and died at Shirleysburg at an advanced age. These were the parents of Elizabeth, who married James, a son of James above-named, and lived in Fulton County; and John, of the firm of Lyon, Shorb & Co., long and extensively known in the iron trade at Pittsburgh, being, in fact, at the head of the iron business in the West. 

Fanny Lyon married William Graham, Esq., already mentioned, and they are the grandparents of Dr. G. M. Graham, of Port Royal. 

The mother of these children was a sister of General John Armstrong, of Carlisle, who, with two brothers, came to America in 1748, and died in 1795. His son, John Armstrong, served in the Revolution, was United States Senator from New York, minister to France and Secretary of War under Madison. 

John McClellan took up a few acres for Elizabeth McClellan below the rocks at "Taylor's Falls," so called, from Esquire James Taylor, who laid out Mifliinburg on the opposite side of the river. 

John McClellan, Jr., who died at the head of the Chaudiere River in the Amold expedition against Quebec in 1775, took up one hundred and fifty-eight acres, June 3, 1762, southwest of Patterson, where S. D. Kepner now resides. 

James Sanderson married Nancy McClellan and lived on part of the McClellan tract; later on the Law place, below Patterson, where he kept a ferry. He also had a tannery prior to l809 in Mifflintown, which his brother Alexander carried on after that date. He kept also a tavern in Mifflintown. Of his children, Alexander Sanderson married Nancy Davidson and moved to Selma, Ala., taking his mother with him. Joseph Sanderson for many years kept the Merchants' Hotel, on Fourth Street, in Philadelphia. He superintended its reconstruction, having then (1836) another hotel. Afterwards he kept a house on Chestnut Street. His wife was a Todhunter. 

Robert Huston warranted two hundred and fifty acres July 6, 1762, long known as the Ben Kepner farm (now John R. Jenkins'). It was surveyed May 31, 1763, then in; "Leek" township, and contained two hundred and seventy-three acres. William Norris was then on the Waldsmith side. 

There is a common opinion among the people that the celebrated Sam Houston, of Texas, was a descendant of Robert Houston (Huston and Hustion), who lived at the Jenkins place, a mile east of Walnut post- office, from 1763 to 1783 by the tax-lists. There were also two or three of the name, probably Robert's brothers, living about the same time near McVeytown; but there is nothing to prove that these settlers were the ancestors of Samuel Houston. There are five cabins in five counties of this State where it is firmly believed that General Samuel Houston was born. 

Robert Lytle, January 22, 1767, located the survey, one hundred and sixty-five acres, afterwards Robert Monteith and later Charles Hite, and now Waldsmith brothers. 

Charles Pollock warranted one hundred and fifty-three acres on the south side of Houston, March 3, 1789, though he had lived here already in 1767 and perhaps earlier. It is now George Wilson's place, farmed by D. P. Showers. 

Henry McCrum, a Revolutionary soldier, moved to Juniata County in 1788. His children were Michael, who served in Lee's Partisan Rangers during the Revolution (he and his comrade came to Milford two years before his father; about 1790 he Saulsbury, in Huntingdon County); William, the owner of the upper mill on Licking Creek and ancestor of most of those of the name now in the county; James married to Margaret Campbell; George married Polly Campbell; Philip married the widow of James; Joseph married Jane Horrell, and their children were John H. (the father of Colonel E. B. McCrum) Jane, Sarah, Margaret, Mary (now the wife of John Robison, in Patterson). Jane, daughter of William, married Samuel Bedford, grandfather of Congressman Bedford, of Colorado. 

Robert Campbell, September 23, 1766, took up one hundred and twenty- eight acres since known as the Peter Shitz farm; not Mitchel Varnes. 

John Hamilton warranted two hundred and fifty acres, February 9, 1769, a little lower down and across the creek from the forge. He was a kind of backwoods home doctor in his day. The tract is now owned by John Beshore, Harrison McDonald and Jacob Lauver, and was formerly long held by Richard Cunningham. 

Next the creek, at Thomas Stewart's, Duncan McDonald had fifty-four acres, October 31, 1766, and Thomas Bowel (Boal) had ninety-five and one hundred and thirty-eight acres on two orders, March 23, 1767. This passed to John and Jean Anderson; later the Alexander farm; now Orrin Groninger and Herman McDonald. 

June 29, 1803, William Harris, surveyor, divided the McDonald survey "at request of Thomas Anderson-the Dutchman, not satisfied, alleging there is too much of the ridge on the south side included, and says that the fence was the line sold to him."

John Blackburn had surveyed to him two hundred and seven acres, August 18, 1762, bordering on Licking Creek, where J. K. Robison now lives, and half of which is owned by Judge Lewis Burchfield. This is the Thomas McCahan tract, spoken of elsewhere. At Burchfield's formerly lived Esquire Patrick McKennan, who voted and acted as justice of the peace many years, but was not naturalized. One Jacob Kinzer challenged his vote at the polls simply to annoy him, when it was discovered that he was unnaturalized, and his judicial acts all being illegal, it made quite an excitement. The Legislature came to the rescue subsequently with an act to legalize all his proceedings. 

John Lyon warranted two hundred and seventy-three acres, September 13, 1766, beyond Blackburn and Anderson, where William Sterrett now resides, and comprising the farm of Judge and Dr. Sterrett. His son, Samuel Lyon, warranted two hundred and sixty acres beyond him, September 13, l766, in the heart of the valley. The lands next the ridges at each side were taken up by them at a later period. The lands of the main surveys were held on "an improvement made by Robert Crungleton," whom the Lyons bought out. William Lyon was a surveyor at Carlisle, and looked out this tract for his father, John, before he came over from Ireland. Samuel Lyon sold to John Kelly, April 12, 1794. From Kelly it passed to Joseph B. Ard, then to Moses Kelly, from whom part passed to John P. Kelly, Doyle's Mills, and part, two hundred and eighteen acres, to Pomeroy's heirs. The stone house of John Kelly, built in 1810, was struck by lightning in January, 1811,--a very unusual freak of nature.

Beale Township
Part I

History of that part of the Susquehanna and Juniata valleys, embraced in the counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...
Edited by F. Ellis and A. N. Hungerford.
Published in Philadelphia by Everts, Peck & Richards, 1886
Pages 781-787
A. L. Guss

As early as April 17, 1820, nine petitions were presented to the court, signed by two hundred and eighteen citizens of Milford and Turbett townships, praying for viewers to lay off a new township out of parts of Milford and Turbett, but with discretionary powers as to the boundaries. Nothing resulted from these efforts.
Beale was formed by a division of Milford on February 8, 1843. The viewers were William Dunn, of Fayette; Thomas Stinson, of Walker; and William Sharron of Fayette. The division line follows a public road first laid out in 1768, from Tuscarora Creek to a point near the Shade Mountain, and from the top of that mountain to Tuscarora township line. The first assessment was taken in 1843, and showed about one hundred and twenty-five resident taxables, besides fifteen single freemen. The name given it was a compliment to one of the oldest families in the county, and long prominent in its affairs and in business enterprises, and especially in honor of Hon. John Beale, who was a man of unsullied integrity, kind-heaerted and a patriot. He died January 7, 1867, aged sixty-eight years.
By an act of March 15, 1853, the farm of John Woodward, hitherto in Milford township, was annexed to Beale township.
Beale township is bounded by Milford on the north and east, by Spruce Hill on the south and Tuscarora on the west. The northeastern quarter is drained by Markee or Big Run, formerly called the South Branch of Licking Creek. The balance of the township is drained by streams running southward into the Tuscarora Creek, the principal one of which is Doyle's Run. The Herring Bone Ridges extend westward through the township, and the limestone formations in the Johnstown Valley spoon out against the Shade Mountain.
As the territory of Beale township was in Milford prior to 1843, and in Lack prior to 1769, the reader is referred to the assessment lists of those townships for lists of the first settlers and their locations, and to Milford for a list of early taxable industries.
EARLY SETTLERS.-Commencing on the creek adjoining the Milford line, we have: Alexander Maginty obtained a warrant for three hundred and twelve acres, February 3, 1755. Wilson Laird, Michael Lauver and John Allen now reside upon it.
Above Maginty, towards the ridge, Clement Horrell warranted ninety-seven acres, June 27, 1768, now divided among the above-named present owners. It was on this tract that William Stewart, Sr., was killed by Indians, as given under the head of Spruce Hill township.
The following quaint documents relate to the lands of Academia and Pomeroy's Store, and the first one is the oldest paper pertaining to land titles that has been found in Juniata County. They are given as in the original,--
"For & in Consideration of ye sum of eighteen pounds to me in Hand, Paid, or said to be Paid, by Saml. Waddle, of Chester County, in Pennsylvania, ye Recept of which I Do acknowled, and my Self therewith fully Satisfied have Bargained, Sold & Set over all my Right Property and Interest of an Improvement of Land Situate on ye Tuscarora Creek To ye said James Waddle, Bounded on ye Creek from a Ridge of Hills which as ye Extent north of ye Indian Claim who is now Settled on ye Bottom Surrounded by ye Creek Southward from ye East End of ye Said Ridge down ye Creek Crossing another Ridge of high hills Bounding on ye Land Settled at present by Robert Bell, and westward to James Kenedy's Settlement on ye end of ye Said Ridge of mountains at ye west End, and Eastward on ye Said Ridge of hills to ye plase of Beginning to ye afore-Said Waddle, his Heirs and assigns for Ever, & do Bind and Oblige myself to Hold and keep ye Said Claim for ye said Waddle until ye first Day of October next Ensuing ye date here of and Deliver ye Said Improvement at ye Said time Clear of Incomberance to ye said James Waddle, his heirs or assigns, and to ye True Performance of ye Same I do Bind my self in ye Pennal Sum of Thirty & Six Pounds Current money of Pennsylvania, allways Excepting ye Indians & Proprietor of this Province excepted; in wittness whereof I have Put my hand and Seale this first day of ye month Called June, 1754. "ROBEART TAYLOR. [seal].
"Witness Present: William Beale, Samuel Kenny, Charles Kenny."
(On the back).
"Know all men by these Presents that I, James Waddle, of the township of East Calm, Dos Sign over all my Interest, Right and title of the with in Bill of Sale unto William Beale, of Whiteland, in the county Chester and Province of Pennsylvania, Yeoman and his heirs for ever; Dated this fourteenth Day of October, 1760.
"Witness present: Abiah Parks, Benj. Elliott.
"(Endorsed): Bill of Sale, Robert Taylor to James Waddle."
"Know all men by these presents that I, James Waddle, of the township of East Calm and County of Chester and Province of Pennsylvania, farmer, have sold all my right and title of a Curtain Teniment improvement Situated in the Tuskoraro Valy Near the River Juniata, In Cumberland County, It being a purchas from Robert taylor by a Bill of Sale Dated the first day of June, 1754. And by these Presents Do acknowledge To have Sold and made over all my Right and Interest in Said Improvement Tenement and piece of Land Situated as Before Sd Unto William Beale, of Whiteland, in the County of Chester, Yeoman for the Considration of thirty Pounds To me in hand paid, as witness my hand this fourteenth Day of October, 1760.
"And further have signed over the Said Bill of Sale, and allso do aclrnowledge the warrant taken out of the office Bearing Date the 4th Day of Febry, 1755, to be for the taking up of the Said land, and to be for the Use of the Said William Beale, his Executors, administrators and assigns for Ever.
"do witness my hand and Seal this fourteenth Day of October, Being in the thirty- third year of his majesty king George the Second, one thousand Seven hundred & sixty, 1760.
"Witness Present: Benjm. Elliott, Abah Parker.
"Received of William Beale ye Sum of thirty pounds for the aforesaid Value Received--I say Received the above P sum for me this fourteenth Day of October, 1760.
"(Endorsed) : Artikels of a grement made for a sarting pease of land in Toskerorer Valey from James Wadel to Wilm. Beale."
The tract described above is in the vicinity of Tuscarora academy, and comprises hundreds of acres of the best kind of land. The lines described are a specimen of the quaint old style of surveying by the eye and without a compass.
David and Thos. were sons of William Beale, and the family had come over with Penn, and had always been Quakers. When they moved to Academia they had to cut the road, a mere path, to get to their location. The place they crossed the creek, at the bend where their uncle, "old John Bales," lived, has been, in consequence, called the Quaker Ford ever since. The sons of Thomas Beale were William, John, Washington, Albion and Hannah, married to Isaac Evens. Peter Bale, Sr., was the ancestor of a family now also spelled Beale; but being a German they are not related to the above.
To the lands William Beale held in the right of Waddle, be added at several dates three adjoining tracts. These lands are now in possession of J. Nevin Pomeroy, heirs of Andrew Patterson, Widow Samuel Okeson and the academy grounds. Merchant John Patterson bought the William Beale tract in 1807, and moved his store down from the ridge to where Pomeroy's store now is, in 1816. Here he carried on merchandising until his death, in 1836. He became wealthy, owned a great many tracts of land, and for long years no man was better known in the county. The title "Merchant John" was always used to distinguish him from "Esquire John," his cousin, also well known.
Hon. Joseph Pomeroy, for many years owner of the Beale-Patterson homestead and mill, was an active and successful business man; a merchant; associate judge of Juniata County. He was of French-Huguenot stock. The Pomeroys were among the earliest settlers, and Thomas, the ancestor of the family, was killed by Indians in Franklin County.
The first grist-mill west side of the Juniata River is taxed to Abraham Stamford (Sanford), as a renter, in 1767. The only other mill in the county that year was that of James Pstterson, at Mexico. The next year these are two mills west of the river,--one taxed to Thomas Beale, who held his father, William's, property at Academia; the other to Robert Campbell, who was on Licking Creek. Beale also had a saw-mill, 1769-71 and 1801-2. In 1811, Merchant John Patterson appears with grist and saw-mills at this point, and held them till his death, in 1836. The first mill was built down near the dam. It was washed away by a flood. The second mill was situated midway betweep the first and the present.
By an act of Assembly, February 26, 1796, the Tuscarora Creek, from its mouth up to Thomas Beale's mill-dam, was declared a public highway.
James Kennedy, whom we know had a "settlement" already in 1754, was a little slow in getting a warrant for it. Where he had been sleeping is not known; but when, on June 4, 1762, he came to survey in his two hundred and fifty-nine acres, he found that a slice of fifty acres, which he wished for, was in William Beale's survey. There was some trouble over it; but the older warrant held the ground. His tract was long known as the Nicholas Okeson property, who kept a public-house as early as 1790, and the land is held by his grandson, Jonathan.
Ralph Sterrett took up one hundred and forty-six acres, July 27, 1762, sometimes called the "Fort property" and "the old Barclay place," and it is now owned by William Milliken. It is very probable that Ralph Sterrett lived here, if anywhere in this county. The run was called after him. He was an Indian trader, and at home in the woods almost any where. He had a son William, part owner of the forge on Licking Creek, and once sheriff of Mifflin County, who is said to have been born in Bigham's Fort, and the first white child born on this side of Tuscarora Mountain. On March 6, 1764, Ralph Sterrett and his wife, Martha, sold this tract to James Chambers, whose only daughter, Mary, married William Barclay, and their only child, Isabella, married John Milliken, and became the parents of W. B. Milliken, who now resides on the place, as also James M., John A., Joseph, Mrs. Joseph Criswell, Mrs. Ickes and Mrs. Charles Book.
Above Sterrett, on the creek, Thomas Freeman warranted one hundred and sixty- three acres February 24, 1755, including in it the celebrated Indian Mound, treated of elsewhere, now the land of Charles Book. Ralph Sterrett had some kind of a squatter claim on this tract, which he disposed of to Freeman. He was dealer in such claims.
North of Freeman, David McNair warranted seventy-one acres August 8, 1769.
James Williams warranted eighty-nine acres February 6, 1755, on the river, now John Imes. This survey ran across the creek.
David Bowel warranted sixty-seven acres March 23, 1767, now owned by James Beale. The names David and Thomas Bowel (the latter having land near the old forge) may be supposed to be varied spellings for Beale; but they belonged to a family after whom Boalsburg, Centre County, was named.
James Scott got an order for two hundred and nine acres, April 16, 1767, on the creek (and partly across it), now McNair Wilson and David Imes, formerly Theophilus McDonald.
Above this, at the southwest corner of the township, Joseph Scott warranted two hundred and eleven acres June 17, 1767, now Jacob Bair. These are all by the creek,--now by the Valley road.
Samuel Fear warranted a tract about the year 1771 (now the heirs of James Leach). Here, in a gap, on the old abandoned road "from Waterford to Mifflin," was the "Old Store Place," where Merchant John Patterson lived from 1791 to 1807. Here he laid the foundations of his fortune. It is now in a very out-of-the-way place, but was then a central point and on the main road. Here, in this gap, John Simmison was shot and wounded by Indians in 1756, but recovered and lived to be an old man, as related by his son, who lately died near Carlisle, nearly one hundred years of age.
Samuel Brice warranted two hundred and two acres, December 16, 1755, at Doyle's Mills, now partly owned by William Okeson's heirs and Captain James J. Patterson. Brice's warrant says, adjoining Ralph Sterrett and James Scott. It appears that Robert Pollock, of Toboyne, was a squatter on this land and sold his right to James Scott. The date was probably in 1754. The sale to Brice is worth preservation. The following is a


"Know all men by these presants, that I, James Scot, of the County of Cumberland and township of Lack, hath set, sold and Delivered, In plain and open market, unto Samuel Brice, of the County of Lancaster and township of paxtown, an improufmt that did Belong to Robert poak, for a sartin sum of money gave in hand; which said Right and Impronfment I warrant and Defend from all manor of persons Laing aynay Claim, Right or title to the said Land adjoining to Reff Starit on the south est side, and James Scot on the West side, and Abraham Dewit on the north side, which said Land I warant from all men, the honrable prepareator Exsepted.
"As witnes my hand and Seal this 7 day of febauray, 1755.
"Sined, Sealed and delivered in the presance of these witnes presant. "(Signed by mark),
JAMES SCOT [seal].
"(Witneeses): Andrew Johnston, William Shakley."
At a later day it was deemed necessary to get something in writing from Pollock, and, accordingly, a quit-claim deed was executed by him to Robert Walker for twenty shillings, August 24, 1774. Brice sold this tract to Robert Walker May 22, 1773. Walker sold part (two hundred and two acres) to Thomas Harris November 12, 1774. Harris erected a grist-mill as early as 1779. Harris sold it to Dr. John Archer, of Harford County, Md., October 12, 1788. Archer sold it to Thomas H. Stewart, of Huntingdon County, March 24, 1810.
It seems that the two hundred and two acres sold to Harris did not include all the tract claimed by Walker. For this there was then issued a warrant to Robert Walker June 5, 1770.
William Okeson, about 1833, bought of Thomas H. Stewart about two hundred and twenty-five acres of the Brice lands, on which he resided during his long, active business life. This fine farm still belongs to his heirs.
The "Bill of Seal from Scoot," above given, is the work of the subscribing witness, Andrew Johnson, who seems to have been the first lawyer in Juniats County. He had his office at McWilliams' shop. John Johnson, the White Hunter, was likely his brother. Andrew left his settlement on the head of "Reff Starit's Run" at an early day.
Lieutenant-Colonel George Stewart lived at the Okeson mansion at Doyle's Mills. He was taxed as owning a negro slave, who is the ancestor of Robert Johnson, colored, now living in Beale. Thomas Harris, who probably went to Maryland from near Harrisburg, bought the old Brice lands at Doyle's Mills about 1776, and divided them between his son, John Harris, and son-in-law, George Stewart, the father of John, the surveyor, who was related to the Lyons, for whom he did surveying. Surveyor John was the father of John Harris Stewart, also a surveyor. Among the descendants may be named Dr. Joseph Stewart and his sons,--Rev. Robert, Rev. J. H., George H., of Pittsburgh, and John, late of the Forty-ninth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry; and also the descendants of Mrs. Annie Stewart, wife of Dr. Joseph Kelly. Colonel Stewart took an active part against the Indians on the border during the Revolution.
The post-office established in 1863, Doyle's Mills, was named after Richard Doyle, who long owned the mills at this place, Jonathan Doyle being the first postmaster. Captain James J. Patterson succeeded in 1868, and John P. Kelly in 1872.
Abraham Dewitt warranted two hundred and twenty-seven acres 24, 1767, now occupied by William Leech and others. William Irwin, an active man in the Presbyterian Church, long owned this place. Dewitt bought the Sunbury Ferry October 8, 1779, and his widow (then Eleanor Coldron) sold it to John Lyon October 25, 1787.
James Heddleston, west of Brice, was an early settler, but only warranted his one hundred and seventy-five acres May 4, 1789, now owned by heirs of John Harris. This was the old George Sanderson improvement. George Sanderson had an order of survey, and held a large body of land, but the survey was never returned. At length he sold out his claims, such as they were, to John Harris, James Boggs, Jonathan Kearsly and others.
The following facts relate to the lower side of the township, in the Johnstown Valley: John McMahan warranted one hundred and fifteen acres, above Robert Huston and below Johnstown, July 5, 1762, enlarged by two surveys in the name of his widow, Margaret; now the property of T. K. Robison, Mrs. Frankhouse, Rev. J. Hervey Beale, J. Kelly Patterson and William Swartz.
James McMahan warranted one hundred acres February 4, 1755, and two hundred and sixty-two acres more May 12, 1767, just above John's tract. It passed to John Henderson, then to William Beale, surveyor. The bulk of it is now owned by Samuel and William Pannebaker, David Adams, Haldeman's heirs and others.
A small portion of William Beale's land came into possession of his son, the Hon. John Beale. He sold it out in lots, and the place, taking his first name, was called Johnstown. When, later, a post-ofiice was established here, it was named "Walnut," but the village retains the old name, somewhat to the confusion of mail matter. The town has the usual hotel, stores and shops of a country village. A post-office was first established here in 1833. John Harris was the first postmaster; and has since been succeeded by Samuel Buck, Joshua Beale, Mahlon Kerlin, John Adams, Jacob Lemon, Solomon Doughman, John H. Rogers for eight years, Mrs. Sarah Hostetler and Alexander Woodward since 1871.
The first Methodist camp-meeting in Juniata County was held in the grove just above Johnstown about 1820. The land then belonged to George Hikes, a nurseryman, who was an active member of that society. Owing to its novelty and some extravagant actions, it attracted immense crowds of people. The father of this man Hikes kept a nursery near Newville, Cumberland County, and from him Merchant John Patterson got a large lot of choice apple trees, which were planted at Academia, Peru Mills, on the farm of the late Abraham Guss, Sr., in Milford, and elsewhere. They were the earliest good grafted fruit introduced into the county, at least in large quantities. They were called Rambos, Hoops, Penicks, Russetts, Red Streaks, Winter Sweets, Vandevers, Pippins, Oats and Cotlins.
John Irwin, on February 4, 1755, took out a warrant for two hundred acres to be located on Tuscarora Creek, but before he got it surveyed the tract was surveyed to others. On June 12, 1766, he had resurveyed to him three hundred and fifty acres, now a fine piece of land and in the heart of the valley. After his death it was divided, December 23, 1794, between James, Jr. and Robert Irwin, his sons. This tract now comprises the farms of E. Southard Parker, Abraham G. Partner and Abraham Brubaker.
On the road from Johnstown to Academia, on the top of the ridge, at the head of Tar Hollow, is a tract which was warranted to Matthew Mateer, one hundred and thirty-four acres, July 3, 1767. Here once lived, for about fifty years, Robert Miskelly. It is now owned by J. Calvin Beale.
Christopher Irwin is stated to have had an improvement north of John Irwin, above the ridge, in 1786, but he is on the tax-list already in 1773. He warranted three hundred and thirty acres May 19, 1795. The Irwins are said to have settled above the ridge, because the valley was too swampy. There is a great deal of misapprehension among the people now as to the facts in such cases. Men then knew the difference between poor and good land as well as people do now. The dates in the case of the Irwins show that they knew where to locate their warrants. There were men who located their surveys on the good land, but erected cabins on adjoining uplands, which they could thus hold by right of improvement, in addition to their surveys, and they did this, especially for a few years, where the timber was small and thin and easily removed, and where they could with little labor raise something to get a start and give themselves time to clear the more fertile and more heavily-timbered lands. The first settlers dug no wells, and always located where there was good water, which sometimes was not convenient to the main body of their lands.
Several tracts above were occupied and claimed by one John Woods as early as 1755. The stream rising in this region was early called Sterrett's Run, after Ralph Sterrett, who lived near its mouth, and later, Woods' Run. It is now known as Doyle's Run.
James Irwin, Sr., bought, in 1762, the right of John Irwin, who held in the right of John Woods, and warranted two hundred and seventy-four acres February 25, 1773. He also bought the tract warranted by John Woods, two hundred and twenty acres, November 6, 1772, thus making four hundred and ninety-four acres. He also took up in his own right one hundred and fifty-two acres more, March 26, 1788, situated between his other land and the mountain.
This tract was sold to Benjamin Fahnestock, who built a saw-mill on a mountain stream in 1797. Part of it passed to Rudolph Bollinger, then to Daniel Bollinger, who added a small chopping-mill. The place was afterwards owned by Jacob Bushy, Samuel Allen and now David W. Allen.
The other part is now owned by James Sherlock, David Hertzler, Harrison Minium, William Stewart and Widow Hannah McDonald. William Cochran warranted two hundred and twenty-four acres March 8, 1765. On the north line of this tract is St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, and the point here is known as McWilliams' Shop, or Allenville. John P. Kelly occupies the old marsion place, and on a draft of December 20, 1805, the stream is still called Sterrett's Run. On Finley's survey, made September 29, 1762, "Joseph Day's formerly Andrew Johnson," is on this Cochran Tract.
Samuel Finley, who also figured in lands at various points, had warranted two hundred and four acres June 1, 1762, "on the head of Starrett's Run," where Harrison Reed and others now reside.
William Reed warranted June 4, 1770, one hundred and fifty-one acres. On this tract John B. Bordell resides, and on the edge of it is Pine Grove school-house.
Michael Yeater's place was taken up by Alexander Glassford. A warrant to John Dillon "to cover an old improvement," April 2, 1805, embraces one hundred and sixty-four acres, now John Bardell.
About 1795 there was a great emigration to the vicinity of Cincinnati and other points along the Ohio River, some going into Kentucky. More followed at intervals, and took from Tuscarora Valley many of its most active young men. In later years the tide was farther north into Ohio. In 1836 to 1840 there was a great moving west into Ohio and beyond. Descendants of those who once lived in Tuscarora may be found in great numhers in Wayne County, about Wooster, Bucyrus and New Lancaster. In places, especially in Beale township, the exodus of 1836 took nearly one-fourth of the inhabitants.

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